Senwes Scenario June/July 2018 - Page 24

AGRICULTURAL Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a disease that is endemic to many African countries and causes debilitation of cattle and economic loss wherever it occurs. 1  By Dr. Barry van Houten Zoetis South Africa, Technical Manager: Ruminants HISTORY AND RECENT OUTBREAKS The disease is caused by the Lumpy Skin Disease Virus (LSDV), from the Capripoxvirus genus and Poxviridae family, and was confined to Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar until the mid-1980’s. 2 In 1989, an outbreak in Israel was eradica­ ted through a slaughter and vaccination scheme. 2 Since then, the disease has spread rapidly into the Middle East, Turkey, Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation, with outbreaks occurring between 2012 and 2015. 3,6 Further outbreaks of LSDV occurred throughout Eastern Europe in 2016, including countries like Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Bulgaria; resulting in these countries implementing vaccination programmes to prevent further spread of the disease. 7 A major reason for the increase in outbreaks in these areas include the breakdown of veterinary services during conflict situations with the resulting uncontrolled movement of animals. 3 Nodules over the animal’s body. Source: Dr. Leratoli 22 SENWES SCENARIO | WINTER 2018 TRANSMISSION The incidence of LSDV is higher during wet and warm conditions, due to the increase of insect vectors during this time. LSDV is usually transmitted through biting insects including mosquitoes in the Aedes and Culex genera, biting flies, and various tick species including; Rhipicephalus decolo­ ratus (blue tick), R. appendiculatus (brown ear tick) and Amblyomma hebraeum (spotted tick). 1,2 Transmission of LSDV via direct contact is poorly unders ѽ)݅́ͅѼѥٔ!ݕٕȰ)́ɥх䁥ѕݡ) ձѕݥѠѕɥɽձ̰)͕Ѽͅلѕ)݅ѕȸȁ1MXɕձ͕)ݥѥЁ́ɕѱ䁉)͡ݸѡЁɥх͕Ʌ͵̴)ͥ1MXȁѱ) 1%9% 0M%9L9 =9=5% )%5A=IQ9 ) ͥ́Ʌɽɕ)Ѽ͕ٕɔѡ(ɕɽєձѥ͔)ȁ ́%́ѱɔɅ)ɔɕͥхЁѼ1MXѡ ́Q)̸ȁQѥͥ́1MXٕ́Ȱ)ݕѡٕЁձ)ѡͭՍ́Ʌٕ́)ѡЁ܁̸ȁMձ́م䁥)ͥ销ăL܁ȁѡɽ՝ѡ)ձѡ́ѡͭȁQ͔ձ)ѡɴɅɕɽͥ)qͥеӊtѡЁ͕Ʌѕ́ɽѡ)ͭѕݥѠ)͕䁉ѕɥѥ̸ȁQ͔)ɕ́ѡɴɐЁѼ)ѡݽչ́ѼMə)́ɝՍ)Ʌ́Յ͡܁аձɅѥٔ)̸ͥȁUɅѥٔͥ́ͼȁ)ѡѕ́ՑȰݡɕձЁѡ)ɕݽѕȸ)5ɉɅѕ́م䁑Ʌѥ)ѡɕչ)х́ɕ͕͕Ёٕѽ̸)Aɕ٥́щɕ́IMٔɕɑ)ɉɅѕ́ɽչĴݥѠͽ)х́ȸȁ5хɅѕ́ɔ)Յ䁱܀Ĵ̔Ёٔȁ)ͽх̸)QȁɽݥѠ1MXд)ɕ́ɔѡѥ́)ѡɽՍȸQ͔Ցİ+$ѥȁɽѠ+$Ѽɍ͕+$Ѽ+$5ѥѥ́ɕՍɽՍѥ+%1+%ѥ+$Mѕɥ䁥ձ̀́ѥѕѥ+$Aյ͍ͅѥ+$Qɕѵаձɕ)̸)AIY9Q%=8)%չɥ́MѠɥ)مѥЁ1յM͕͔)ݥѠٔѕՅѕم́ɔ͕ѥ)ɽѡɕѡ͕͔)́ѡ䁕ѥٔѡ)ɽѡ͕͔ɕ̸)=щɕ́ɔɔɥѡ)ݕн݅ɴ͕ͽݡ͕Ёٕѽ́ɔ)ɕ͕Ёɝյ̰مѥ)͡ձəɵɔѡ́ѥѼ)ɽѕЁЁ1MX́مхѥ)ѥ̸)Iɕ́مɕՕи)Iɕյؼ(Ĵ