Ritual, Secrecy and Civil Society Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 2013 - Page 46
Ritual , Secrecy , and Civil Society
credo of this bourgeoisie is : music above all . This will to openness and democratization is mediated by a new phenomenon : amateur concerts and the concert hall . But ever since the first half of the eighteenth century , music was not only French , it was also German , thanks to or because of the Mannheim School . 112 This school draws its name from the eponymous city on the Rhine . Its glory years lasted from January 1743 to December 1777 , the time of the reign of Prince-Elector Palatine Karl Theodor , who left for Munich once he became Prince-Elector of Bavaria , taking half of his orchestra along in his retinue .
Beginning in 1745 , the Mannheim Orchestra was directed by Johann Stamitz ( 1717 – 1757 ), who headed for Paris in 1754 , where he performed his own works on September 8 at the Concert Spirituel . He stayed about a year in the French capital where he wrote his Trios for Orchestra , op . 1 . He cultivated a new musical dynamic , the Crescendo , and made advances in the art of orchestration and thematic work . He adapted stylistic traits largely of Italian origin to the nascent form of the symphony . After his premature death , it is Canabich ( 1731 – 1798 ) who succeeds him . The Mannheim School was novel in that its music , whether written or performed , nuanced and diversified the use of musical instruments ; this was manifested in the composition of countless symphonies , concertos , and sinfonie concertanti , a genre that practically became a Mannheim specialty . Close relations were maintained between Mannheim and Paris , a city where Stamitz performed , and in his wake , many other musicians did the same . In a rather typical crossover , the sinfonia concertante will become a French specialty of this period . The Mannheim style was also spread by the Amateur Concerts Society [ Concert des Amateurs ] that Gossec founded in 1770 .
About 30 Germanic musicians disembark in Paris and from 1758 to 1786 they are the most prestigious . The first to settle in Paris is Sieber in 1758 . He is a horn player , harpist , and music publisher all in one . 113 He begins his editing work in Paris in 1770 – 1771 by publishing the works of Stamitz , Johann Christian Bach , Haydn , and Mozart ; and in 1784 he is a member of Les Amis Réunis . In 1764 , it is the turn of Jean Paul Egide Martini , whose real name is Schwarzendorf ( 1741 – 1816 ), an organist and composer . Before Paris , he had a long stay in Nancy in the service of Stanislas Leczinski , 114 then he becomes the Count of Artois ' music director . His renown is largely due to his famous romance “ The Pleasure of Love ” [ Plaisir d ' Amour ], which brings him immortality ; he was also a member of Les Amis Réunis in 1782 . Henri Joseph Rigel 115 ( 1741 – 1799 ) is Jomelli ' s disciple in Stuttgart , then Richter ' s , both of whom are “ fathers of the Mannheim School .” He continued their work in Paris , where his brother and his son also moved . He was a member of the Saint-Lazare lodge in 1773 , then a member of la Société Olympique in 1786 . 116 François Petrini ( 1744 – 1819 ), son of a harpist of the King of Prussia , moved to Paris in 1769 ; he was a well-known composer and a famous harpist 117 ; Petrini was a member of the lodge La Paix in 1778 and a member of the chapter Le Choix in 1779 .
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 112 Romain Feist , L ’ Ecole de Mannheim ou l ’ Athènes musicale des pays germaniques ( Paris , 2002 ),
135 p . 113 Anick Devries , “ Les éditions musicales Sieber ,” in Revue de Musicologie ( Paris , 1969 ), 20-46 . 114 Yves Ferraton , ed ., La Vie culturelle à l ’ époque de Stanislas ( D . Guéniot , Langres : Actes du
colloque de Nancy , 2005 ), 160 p . 115 Like some of his contemporaries , he gallicizes his name , which was originally Riegel . 116 His son Henri Jean ( 1772 – 1852 ) was a member of l ’ Accord Parfait sous Diane in 1789 , then a
member of l ’ Ecossaise du Grand Sphinx in 1804 . His second son Louis ( 1769 – 1811 ) was a member of la Société Olympique in 1786 , then of l ’ Accord Parfait sous Diane in 1789 . 117 France Vernillat , “ La Littérature de la harpe en France au XVIIIe siècle ” in Recherches ( Paris ,