Review/Oorsig Volume 23, Issue 01 - Page 29

Volume 23 • Issue 01 • 2019 When a pathogen or bacteria crosses one of the body’s barriers, such as the skin, mucous membrane, or blood vessel linings, the immune system will detect the invasion. The immune system then sends signals to cytokines, pro- inflammatory proteins, indicating that help is needed. This initiates the movement of white blood cells toward the site of inflammation, infection or trauma. The first responders to the site are white blood cells called phagocytes. These cells help protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells. There are two forms of phagocytes: • • Neutrophils are small, granular leukocytes that quickly appear at the site of a wound and ingest bacteria. Monocytes are larger leukocytes that appear about three days after infection and scavenge for bacteria, foreign particles, and dead cellular material left behind by the neutrophils. There are also a group of anti-inflammatory cytokines that help control the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. However, if there is a lack of balance between the pro-inflammatory and anti- inflammatory proteins, the pro-inflammatory cytokines can send too many monocytes (white blood cells) to the site, damaging healthy cells and leading to chronic or prolonged inflammation. This is the point when an acute inflammatory response can potentially turn into a chronic inflammatory response. epithelial layer of cells lining the gastrointestinal tract, allowing pathogens and their toxins to enter the bloodstream due to leaky gut. Production challenges A few common results or consequences of inflammation in livestock and poultry include decreased carcass and meat quality, decreased reproductive performance, and increased lameness. These production challenges involve an immune response that, if left uncontrolled, can lead to chronic inflammation. Reproduction It is critical for production animals to mount an effective immune response following the birthing process in order to effectively eliminate pathogens that enter the reproductive tract during the birthing process. It is also important to repair epithelial tissues damaged during birthing and replace those with healthy epithelial tissue in order to help prepare the animal for subsequent pregnancies. While this process is necessary, prolonged or chronic inflammation can result in decreased reproductive performance. Common sources of inflammation There are several inflammation sources that impact livestock and poultry performance and profitability. Two of the most common sources are poor gut integrity and heat stress. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract lining serves as an important barrier to prevent bacteria, pathogens and their toxins from passing through the intestinal lining and into the bloodstream. When a breakdown in the barrier occurs, this can lead to a condition called leaky gut. When a prolonged inflammatory response occurs in the GI tract, this decreases feed intake and animal performance. When animals are under heat stress, blood flow is diverted away from the tissues that line the blood vessels within the stomach, digestive tract, and other internal organs to the skin, which facilitates the heat dissipation process. However, the reduction in blood flow causes a decrease in the amount of oxygen and energy available to the It is critical for production animals to mount an effective immune response following the birthing process in order to effectively eliminate pathogens that enter the reproductive tract during the birthing process. Lameness Lameness is a significant animal wellness and economic issue. Lameness negatively impacts animal locomotion, and is often due to inflammation. Left uncontrolled, the results can be reduced milk yield, reduced fertility, and an increased risk of culling, leading to considerable economic costs. Mammary health Somatic cell count (SCC) is a marker for chronic inflammation in the udder. By lowering chronic inflammation in the animal, you can lower SCC, allowing more energy and nutrients to be used for milk production versus fighting inflammation. 29