Review/Oorsig Volume 23, Issue 01 - Page 13

Volume 23 β€’ Issue 01 β€’ 2019 an increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia and a reduced ratio of Firmicutes [50]. It is evident that probiotic species play important roles in maintaining the gut microbiota ecosystem in humans and animals. BioMed Research International 4. Bacteria Species Table 1 presents the most significant results of various studies on the influence of probiotic bacteria species or strains on modulation of the gut microbiota in various models and diseases. 3 Table 1: Some bacterial strains used in gut microbiota modulation. Bacteria strains L. acidophilus L. acidophilus (NCK2025) L. acidophilus L. acidophilus L. casei BL23 L. fermentum FTDC 812 L. johnsonii L. plantarum CCFM10, RS15-3 L. acidophilus B. cereus, B. infantis L. acidophilus L. rhamnosus, B. bifidum B. breve IPLA20004 E. coli Nissle 1917 S. boulardii S. boulardii E. hirae Disease model Outcomes References ↑ IL-10, Treg Eight-week-old male C57BL/mice IBD [15] ↓ IL-6, IL-1𝛽𝛽, IL-17 ↑ IL-10, IL-12 CRC [16] Generation of TS4Cre Γ—APC lox468 mice ↓ Treg ↑ IL-17 Female BALB/c mice Crohn’s disease [17] ↓ Th17 function, IL-23 ↑ Lactobacilli, BALB/c mice Ulcerative colitis Bifidobacteria [18] ↓ S. aureus ↑ Th17, Th 22, IL-10, and Female C57BL/6 mice CRC IL-22 [19, 20] ↓ Treg Eight week old BALB/c mice Hypercholesterolemia ↑ Lactobacillus [21] Male C57BL/6 mice Acute live injury ↑ IL-22, Lactobacillus [22] 58 week BALB/c mice Oxidative stress ↑ Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes [23] ↑ E. coli, Enterococcus, ↓ Bifidobacteria, Nonalcoholic fatty [24] Eight week SPE male SD mice Bacteroides, and liver disease Lactobacillus ↑ Firmicutes, Eight week C57BL/6 mice Type 2 diabetes [25] Actinobacteria ↓ Bacteroidetes Human colon Inflammatory ↑ IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 [26] Chronic ↑ IL-10, tight-junction Male C57BL/6J mice [27] inflammation ↓ IL-17 ↑ Bacteroidetes Adult BALB/c mice Acute liver failure [28] ↓ Firmicutes, Proteobacteria ↑ Firmicutes, Six week C57BL/6 mice Type 2 diabetes Proteobacteria, and [29] Fibrobacteria C57BL/6J mice Cancer ↑ Th 17 cell response [30] 4.1. Lactobacillus. Most studies probiotic modulation of the gut microbiota in various of models and dis- eases. species in biomedical research have examined the lactic acid bacteria group. In gut microbiota 4.1. Lactobacillus. Most studies of probiotic species in bio- studies, Lactobacillus has been the medical research have examined the reported lactic acid as bacteria most probiotic from the lactic has acid group. prominent In gut microbiota studies, Lactobacillus been reported as group. the most Changes prominent in probiotic from the lactic bacteria the composition, acid bacteria and group. Changes of in the diversity, diversity, function the composition, gut microbiota and function of the gut microbiota by probiotic species have by probiotic species have been studied using been studied using tools and techniques including targeted, tools and techniques including targeted, culture-dependent methods and metagenomics sequencing. culture-dependent and metagenomic However, a few studies methods have demonstrated the associations sequencing. However, studies have of probiotic species with altered a gut few microbiota composition. A recent metagenomic of 8-week-old Swiss mice demonstrated the analysis associations of probiotic fed a high-fat showed treatment composition. with a probiotic species with diet altered gut that microbiota mixture of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (L. rhamnosus, A recent metagenomic analysis of 8-week- L. acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum) significantly old Swiss mice fed of the a gut high-fat diet and showed altered the composition microbiota increased that with authors a probiotic mixture of insulin treatment sensitivity. Several have reported that mice with a high-fat diet probiotic species a lower pop- Lactobacillus and with Bifidobacterium (L. had rhamnosus, ulation of Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, and Bacteroides than L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifdum) untreated mice [25]. Similar work on obese mice revealed that significantly altered the composition of the gut several Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and other microbiota and increased insulin sensitivity. Several authors have reported that mice with a high-fat diet with probiotic species had a lower Disease population Firmicutes, and coliform bacteria of increased the gut Actinobacteria, microbiota composition in Bacteroides mice with a high-fat treated with various Lactobacillus than diet untreated mice [25]. Similar probiotic (L. acidophilus B-7279, that L. casei several IMV B- work strains on obese mice IMV revealed 7280, B. animalis VKL, and B. animalis VKB). In addition, Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and other the gut microbiota composition of obese mice treated with L. coliform bacteria increased gut microbiota casei, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the and B. animalis showed in mice with a high-fat diet Probiotic treated a composition significant decrease in microscopic fungi [51]. species Lactobacillus may improve gastrointestinal barrier with of various Lactobacillus probiotic strains function by the proliferation of some bacteria [24, (L. acidophilus IMV B-7279, L. harmful casei IMV B7280, 52]. Intestinal permeability can be achieved with an increase B. animalis VKL, and B. animalis VKB). In in the intestinal tight-junction protein occludin. After a addition, gut microbiota composition of change in the the gut microbiota composition with a probiotic, obese treated with reported L. casei, L. delbrueckii mice with mice a high-fat diet were to show an increase in subsp. the expression of the tight-junction protein, proglucagon bulgaricus, and B. animalis showed mRNA, and reduced intestinal in expression of the pattern a significant decrease microscopic fungi recognition receptors species CD-14 and of NOD1. It also leads may to a [51]. Probiotic Lactobacillus reduction in the circulating level of lipopolysaccharide and barrier 1. function by pro- the an improve increase gastrointestinal in glucagon-like peptide In addition, proliferation of have some shown harmful bacteria [24, 52]. biotic-treated mice increases in lipoprotein- lipase-dependent triglyceride can storage adipose tissue Intestinal permeability be in achieved with and an adipocyte accumulation [25, 53]. Probiotic increase triacylglycerol in the intestinal tight-junction protein Lactobacillus strains have been found to increase gastroin- occludin. After a change in the gut microbiota testinal barrier function by the proliferation of harmful composition with a probiotic, mice with a high- fat diet were reported to show an increase in the expression of the tight-junction protein, 13