Review/Oorsig Volume 23, Issue 01 - Page 11

Volume 23 • Issue 01 • 2019 Probiotic Species in the Modulation of Gut Microbiota: An Overview Open Source: Hindawi, BioMed Research International, Volume 2018, Article ID 9478630, 8 pages, https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9478630 Md. Abul Kalam Azad , 1,2 Manobendro Sarker, 3 Tiejun Li , 1 and Jie Yin 1,2 1 Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Changsha, Hunan 410125, China 2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China 3 Department of Food Engineering and Technology, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh Probiotics are microbial strains that are beneficial to health, and their potential has recently led to a significant increase in research interest in their use to modulate the gut microbiota. The animal gut is a complex ecosystem of host cells, microbiota, and available nutrients, and the microbiota prevents several degenerative diseases in humans and animals via immunomodulation. The gut microbiota and its influence on human nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immunity are addressed, and several probiotic species and strains are discussed to improve the understanding of modulation of gut microbiota. This paper provides a broad review of several Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and other coliform bacteria as the most promising probiotic species and their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, malignancy, liver disease, and inflammatory bowel disease. This review also discusses a recent study of Saccharomyces spp. in which infammation was prevented by promotion of proinflammatory immune function via the production of short-chain fatty acids. A summary of gut microbiota alteration with future perspectives is also provided. 1. Introduction Alteration of the gut microbiota with probiotic species is very prominent in human and animal disease treatment. The potential of probiotic species has recently motivated researchers to examine the production of probiotic foods and the modulation of the gut microbiota. The importance of consumption of probiotic foods with a specific mix of bacteria has been widely studied since the beginning of the 20th century, and yogurt has drawn attention to maintaining good health via development of the digestive system and the prevention of various degenerative diseases [1– 3]. The word “probiotic” comes from Greek and means “for life.” In 1954, Ferdinand Vergin conceived the term “probiotic” in an article entitled “Antibiotika und Probiotika,” in which several microorganisms were studied to make a list of useful bacteria and to determine the detrimental effects of antibacterial agents and antibiotics on the intestinal microbiota [4]. A few years later, Lilly and Stillwell described probiotics as beneficial microorganisms that exert growth-promoting factors for other microorganisms [5]. The term “probiotics” has been modifed over time and with research into their application and clinical trials in various human and animal models. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), probiotics are live strains of microorganisms that confer health benefits upon the host when administrated in adequate amounts [6], and this definition is followed by the International Scientifc Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) [7, 8]. However, researchers continue to develop new probiotic species, even though probiotic species have long been used for human health improvement. Most probiotic products today are developed with Bifdobacteria, Lactobacilli, and other lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactococci and Streptococci. Other promising probiotic strains include the bacterial genera Bacillus, Escherichia, and Propionibacterium and some other yeast genera, mainly Saccharomyces. Probiotics are usually considered to be safe for human health with limited adverse effects [9]. Several species and strains of Lactobacilli, including Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus helveticus, have been extensively studied in the prevention of human and animal diseases. These probiotic species are able to change the population of microorganisms in the gut microbiota and control the functioning of the ecosystem of gut microbiota. In earlier studies, considerable evidence of clinical trials of probiotics in animal and human models has reported suitability for the treatment of a variety of diseases, and this number continues to grow. The human gut is a complex ecosystem in which nutrients, the microbiota, and host cells interact extensively. The relationships between 11