Review/Oorsig Volume 22, Issue 05 - Page 7

Volume 22 • Issue 05 • 2018 Figure 11: Perirenal hemorrhage Figure 14: Microcephaly in a goat Kidney: perirenal hemorrhage is a common and frequent incidental finding in ruminant fetuses. Collection of histopathology samples Once the internal examination is complete samples are collected into 10% buffered formalin for histopathology. The routine set of tissue samples should always include brain, thyroid, heart, lung, thymus, liver, spleen, kidney, lymphnode, adrenal, intestine, skin (eyelid). Always collect additional liver tissue into formalin in case you wish to run mineral analysis. Sampling of the placenta Scan to view video http://bit.ly/2OJIM7B Figure 12. Umbilical artery hemorrhage (arrows) Umbilical artery: umbilical hemorrhage indicates that the calf/lamb/kid was alive at the time of abortion. Open skull and examined the brain The head is then removed, and the skull opened to examine the brain for various abnormalities in particular hydranencephaly (no doming of the skull), porencephaly, hydrocephalus (doming of the skull), cerebellar atrophy/abiotrophy, cerebral atrophy/microcephaly, congestion, hemorrhage, meningoencephalitis and necrosis (figure 13 and figure 14). Figure 13. Hydranencephaly in a bovine • • • Placenta is the interface between the endometrial caruncle and placental cotyledon and this is the common primary site of infection. Spread of infection from the placenta through the allantoic membrane into the allantoic (amniotic / abomasal) fluid occurs in many, but not all cases. Ensure both the cotyledonary and intercotyledonary areas are collected for both microbiology and histopathology. Abortion Investigation Microbiology – Synopsis Samples collected for microbiological culture should include abomasal fluid, placental cotyledon, lung and liver. The interface between the endometrial curuncle and placental cotyledon is very commonly the primary site of infection of many of the infectious agents associated with abortion, initiating a placentitis. Spread of infection from the placenta through the allantoic membrane into the allantoic (amniotic / abomasal) fluid occurs in many, but not all cases. Therefore, some cases of placentitis do not spread 7