Review/Oorsig Volume 22, Issue 05 - Page 5

Volume 22 • Issue 05 • 2018 Figure 3: Myocardial neosporosisa Figure 6. Tongue anemia. Examine the thymus gland or evidence of reduced size (atrophy) or enlargement (hypertrophy). Possible causes of thymic atrophy in the ruminant neonate (figure 7 and figure 8) include • • • • Figure 4: White muscle disease level (figure 3 and figure 4). Histopathology is required for accurate distinction of these entities. Etiologies to consider when confronted with pale myocardial streaking of fetal heart muscle include micronutrient imbalances (vitamin E, selenium, copper, zinc etc.), infectious agents (viruses, protozoa) and toxic agents (heavy metals, mycotoxins). Examine the fetus for any evidence of anemia or icterus. Remember the tongue forms part of the oral mucosal surfaces and so is a useful organ in conjunction with mucous membrane examination, for the assessment of anemia, icterus, congestion, methemoglobinemia (nitrate poisoning) etc. (figure 5 and figure 6). Figure 5. Icterus in utero anaplasmosis • • Maternal malnutrition. Zinc deficiency Foetal stress with elevated glucocorticoids Exposure of dam to environmental contaminants (chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals) Mycotoxins (fumonocin, aflatoxins) Viral agents (BVDV). Figure 7. Normal thymus Figure 8: Thymic atrophy 5