Review/Oorsig Volume 22, Issue 04 - Page 24

Oorsig/Review AO - 13 Jan 2017 In agreement. They die from various complications – interestingly they develop a cloacal prolapse as clinical sign. First they seem to leak urine, moist drip line from the cloaca, as it dries you get a nice white line showing the affected chicks, then you get “brake lights” as described by the workers – cloacal mucosal oedema and partial prolapse. Lastly the intestinal prolapse. This gets secondary infected and mortalities can be moderate. However most “survive” the secondary infections but just develop a complete systemic failure (cachexia). We have found Crypto in the pancreas which could explain this. I think crypto just becomes systemic and spreads throughout all the organs. I have seen 10cm long prolapse tissue just drop off without any problem – i.e. mortality. Seems you do not need that distal part of the intestine. Morbidity – 1% - 100% usually around 25-30% WG - 15 Jan 2017 It is also probably present on most/all farms. It forms part of a calf diarrhoea complex and cases are often more severe when more than one pathogen is involved as different parts of the intestine are affected by different pathogens. Control of Crypto relies on hygiene and colostrum which is essentially the same as for most/all causes of calf diarrhoea. Regular monitoring of IgG or TSP will tell you if the colostrum programme is adequate. In terms of hygiene, consider both the environment and fomites (bottles, staff hands etc.) and remember that healthy adult cows shed most of the causes of calf diarrhoea in their faeces. Separation of calves from older animals and footbaths/handwashing when entering the calf area should be implemented. We are moving out of the era when we could rely on antibiotics to cover up poor management and biosecurity. AO - 18 Jan 2017 I think you are only seeing symptoms of something underlying. You have mentioned the isolation of three organisms. Have they been found together or alone during various outbreaks. Which is most prominent during the course of the outbreak? Some more epidemiological data may help you to single out the significant role player and then you can address the management aspects accordingly. We have sporadic problems with Crypto. Ecology in our case Stress associated = immune compromised. Crypto is water borne/ associated. Notably during our winter rainfall periods with chicks being housed during poor weather. Too wet and cold and chicks do not have sufficient eating 24 time. They want to be outside. They are exposed to wet soil constantly. Any pica and you have the problem. During high summer temperatures chicks have a very high water intake resulting in high (frequent and increased volume) urination. It is usually clear and results in wetting of the walk area. Investigatory behaviour and they start with a soil pica/vice. Milky urine is investigated but they immediately turn away – lower water intake. This is how I believe we get our exposure )ѼѼ=ѡȁѽ́ɥѥAɕ٥) Ѽѡɴ)хLՅ䁅ٽյLɥѥͽչ)ȁݡͽ̸)@ԁ9؀)M䁽щɕ́ɡٕٕ̀)չȁѕٕͥٔѥ̰́ɕ)ٕȁ啅́݅́݅́ͽѕݥѠ)͔Ёѡ͕́ͅ)ݕɔхȁձɕ́ѡ͕́ݕɔ)ɵ]Ʌѥѡ!ٕѡ)щɕ́хѕѡѥ́ɑ́)ɕ͍ѼɕЁѡ͔ٕ́ѡ)ٕ5䁍ٕ́ѡ͔ѡЁɕٕɕ)ݕɔѱɕչ̸=ȁ٥ѡ)͕ѽ́ɍم́ݥѠ)ٕ䁵ᕐ̸Qɽ͍ѕ)ՅݥѠɔɔɵ́)ѕЁѡЁхЁɕ́Ёٕ)ٔ́ͅх͔٥ɕ)䁵ѠЁѡͅɑ̸$ЁЁѡЁݔ)ٕȁ́ͅȁѽѠ%ɕɽ)ЁݡЁ́ѥ)䁡ɐЁЁ́ݕѡЁ Ѽ݅)ɕ䁄ɽѡ͔ѥ̸%$ɕ)ݕݔͼͅ܁ѡЁЁѡɑ́ѡ)ɽ͡ѡ͕ѡɐ)啅́$ͽѡ՝ЁѡЁѡ)хѕѥѕȁչѼѡ)ЁЁձ́ݕѡЁѡٕ́)չѼѡ ѼɅ͵ѕЁѼ)ѡȁ̸ٕ ͕ѡЁյѥ䁅٥)Ѽ́́ѥѼمєЁݥѠ)ѽ́مЁѡͼ)ѼɕЁ͕́ݥѠձɕЁѡ)Ʌѥ!坥́ɕ́䁄)ɽ)5ԁ9؀(ɅͱѕɽȃL)$ɥѡͅѕ䁽)ɕ͔ɡ䁅)ٕ́́ݕ́́ѡЁɕЁ́Ѽѡ)хɐɕѵЁɽѽɽѕ̰)ѥѥ̀Յ䁅ЁM)ݥѠ9M%e̸$ѡѡ