Review/Oorsig Volume 22, Issue 03 - Page 8

Oorsig/Review imbalances, maternal over-nutrition, in-utero viral infection, in-utero exposure to mycotoxins, uteroplacental insufficiency (small placenta, low number of cotyledons, placentitis) and maternal toxaemia. Figure 11: In-utero growth retardation Figure 14: Broadening basisphenoid This premature closure of the synchondroses results in doming of the forehead, flattening of the face, shortening of the maxilla (figure 13) and broadening of the basisphenoid bone (figure 14). Figure 12: Age matched fetus without IUGR The gross features of in-utero growth retardation include the conformational defects of shortening of the forelimbs, doming of the forehead, facial flattening, basisphenoid thickening and shortening of the maxilla (figure 11 and figure 12). The head deformities that develop as a consequence of in-utero growth retardation arise due to premature closure of the synchondroses (cartilaginous joints) of the skull. The skull is therefore unable to elongate and can only effectively grow taller and broader. Figure 13: Head deformity IUGR 8 Fetal oversize/dystochia frequently characterized by facial swelling with swollen tongue, subcutaneous edema with bruising and frequently accompanied by meconium staining. Figure 15: Fetal oversize / dystochia Figure 16: Mycotic dermatitis – shoulders