Review/Oorsig Volume 22, Issue 03 - Page 31

Volume 22 • Issue 03 • 2018 Breeding efficiency will decline in herds with a high prevalence of type II ketosis: this is thought to be due to the toxic effect of NEFA’s on the follicle and the oocyte. In a herd with a high prevalence of type II ketosis a high proportion of the dry cows are excessively fat (in excess of a body condition score of 3,5) and many of the cows four weeks after calving are thin (BCS of less than 2). Herd surveillance to determine the prevalence and risk of ketosis determine the risk of Type II ketosis developing, is to take serum samples of multiparous cows for NEFA evaluation between 2 and 14 days prepartum of 5-15 cows. NEFA levels above 0.3mEq/l are indicative of an increased risk of Type II ketosis. Although high NEFA levels in heifers is also associated with the risk of Type II ketosis, it has also shown correlation with high milk production, which may be due to the genetic ability of high producers to utilise NEFA as energy source. Care should be taken with the interpretation of these results. Draxxin Advertisement Final - Clair Scott 210mm x 148mm + 3 mm bleed.pdf C M “ 1 2018/06/04 8:20:07 AM VETERINARY MEDICINE IF IT’S NOT BROKE, DON’T FIX IT. THAT’S WHY WE GO BACK TO DRAXXIN® YEAR AFTER YEAR. WE SEE EXCELLENT RESULTS KEEPING HIGH RISK CATTLE HEALTHY AND MORTALITY RATES DOWN. MORE PAYING POUNDS AT THE END. THAT’S WHAT WE ARE LOOKING FOR. “ Type I ketosis surveillance Post-partum beta- hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is currently the test of choice for herd surveillance of ketosis. Please note that this will not distinguish type I from type II ketosis. Ideally 15 cows should be sampled in the first few days post-partum, and BHB levels over 1.0mmol/l indicate subclinical ketosis while levels over 1.2mmol/l indicate clinical ketosis. A hand-held device is available on the market (designed for human diabetic patients) that has been validated as a cow- side test on blood (similar to the hand-held glucometers). It is important to use a central blood sample as the level of ketones can vary significantly at the peripheral level. References available online Clair Scott Scott Brothers Livestock, Boissevain, Manitoba Y CM MY CY CMY Urine ketone tests (detecting acetoacetate) have a sensitivity and a specificity of 78 and 96% respectively, translating to false positive and false negative rates of 4% and 8% respectively when the true herd prevalence is 30%. K Tests designed to detect acetoacetate in milk have relatively poor sensitivity, and are not commonly used any more. Type II ketosis surveillance Currently the best way to do herd surveillance to The cattle market has been through many challenges in the last 10 years. But with Draxxin® there is at least one element you can control — year in, year out. YEARS Talk to your local Zoetis sales representative for more information, and how you can count on Draxxin® through thick and thin. S4 Draxxin ® . Reg. No.: C05/17.1.4/02. Each ml of solution contains 100 mg Tulathromycin. For full prescribing information refer to the package insert approved by the medicines regulatory authority. Full product information available from Zoetis South Africa (Pty) Ltd., Co. Reg. No.: 2012/001825/07, 6 th Floor, North Wing, 90 Rivonia Road, Sandton, 2196. Postnet Suite 53, Private Bag 9976, Sandton, 2146, South Africa. Tel.: +27 11 245 3300 or 0860 ZOETIS (0860 963847). IE/123/1805/Draxxin/2018/JA FOR ANIMAL. FOR HEALTH. FOR YOU. 31