Review/Oorsig Volume 22, Issue 03 - Page 16

Oorsig/Review appearance or optical density (Machado et al., 2012b) of this fluid. Transrectal ultrasonography is also useful for diagnosis, but with moderate sensitivity and specificity (Barlund et al., 2008). The prevalence of endometritis in the immediate prebreeding period (approximately 40 – 60 days postpartum) is high in dairy cows and exerts a substantial negative effect on subsequent reproductive performance (Gilbert et al., 2005, Dubuc et al., 2010a, Cheong et al., 2011b), reducing conception to insemination and increasing pregnancy loss between 28 and 60 days after insemination. The major risk factor for development of endometritis appears to be periparturient negative energy balance (Hammon et al., 2004, Dubuc et al., 2010b, Cheong et al., 2011a). Acute puerperal metritis in the early postpartum period increases risk of subsequent endometritis (Cheong et al., 2011b, Lima et al., 2014). The major bacteria associated with endometritis are the same as those implicated in the pathogenesis of puerperal metritis – E. coli, Trueperella pyogenes and the gram-negative anaerobes Prevotella melaninogenica and Fusobacterium pyogenes. E. coli appears to be an early invader and has largely disappeared by the time endometritis is diagnosed. T. pyogenes is more often isolated contemporaneously with the diagnosis (Bicalho et al., 2012, Machado et al., 2012c, Santos and Bicalho, 2012). Virtually all cows show evidence of mild uterine inflammation at 2 weeks postpartum. By 4 to 6 weeks postpartum, up to half of cows still have cytological endometritis. Attempts to diagnose endometritis before about 4 weeks postpartum are confounded by physiological inflammation associated with endometrial remodeling. Overall prevalence of endometritis at about 40 to 60 days postpartum is about 26 %, but herd prevalence ranges widely (5 % to over 50 %) (Dubuc et al., 2010a, Cheong et al., 2011b). Endometritis reduces pregnancy to first AI and overall risk of pregnancy in the affect •±…Ρ…Ρ₯½Έ(‘-…Ν₯΅…Ή₯­…΄•Π…°Έ°€ΘΐΐΠ°₯±‰•ΙЁ•Π…°Έ°€ΘΐΐΤ°) ‘•½Ήœ•Π…°Έ°€ΘΐΔň€ΈQ‘”½ΉΝ•ΕΥ•Ή•Μ½˜)ΝΥ‰±₯Ή₯…°•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯́ݕɔ±•Ν͕ٕ́ɔ₯Έ)™₯ΙΝЁ±…Ρ…Ρ₯½Έ…Ή₯΅…±Μ쁅±Ρ‘½Υ ™₯ΙΝЁ͕ΙΩ₯”)½Ή•ΑΡ₯½ΈΙ…Ρ”έ…́‘₯΅₯Ή₯Ν‘•‰δ•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯Μ)₯Έ‰½Ρ …”Ι½ΥΑΜ°½Ω•Ι…±°Ρ₯΅”ΡΌΑΙ•Ή…Ήδέ…Μ)Ή½Π…™™•Ρ•₯ΈΑΙ₯΅₯Α…Ι½Ύ½έ́έ₯Ρ ΝΥ‰±₯Ή₯…°)•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯Μ€‘ ‘•½Ήœ•Π…°Έ°€ΘΐΔň€Έ)I½ΥΡ₯Ή”‘₯…Ή½Ν₯́½˜•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯́₯͕́±‘½΄)ΑΙ…Ρ₯…°™½Θ…±°½έ́₯Έ„‘•ΙΈ!½έ•Ω•Θ°₯Π)΅…䁉”ΥΝ•™Υ°ΡΌ•α…΅₯Ή”„½‘½ΙЁ½˜½έΜ€‘”ΉœΈ(ΔΨ(Θΐ½έΜ€‰δ•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯…°εΡ½±½δΡΌ½‰Ρ…₯Έ)₯ΉΝ₯‘Ё₯ΉΡΌΡ‘”ΑΙ•Ω…±•Ή”½˜Ρ‘”½Ή‘₯Ρ₯½Έ½Έ„)ΝΑ•₯™₯Œ™…Ι΄ΈQ‘•Έ°₯˜ΑΙ•Ω…±•Ή”₯́‘₯ ΝΡ•ΑΜ)…Έ‰”₯Ή₯Ρ₯…Ρ•ΡΌ‰•Ρѕȁ΅…Ή…”ΡΙ…ΉΝ₯Ρ₯½Έ)½έ́Ѽ΅₯Ή₯΅₯锁Α•Ι₯Α…ΙΡΥΙ₯•ΉΠΉ•…Ρ₯Ω”)•Ή•Ιδ‰…±…Ή”Έ) •…ΥΝ”₯Ή‘₯Ω₯‘Υ…°½έ́…Ι”Ν•±‘½΄‘₯…Ή½Ν•)έ₯Ρ •Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯Μ°ΡΙ•…Ρ΅•ΉΠ₯́ΥΝΥ…±±δ΅½½ΠΈ)-…Ν₯΅…Ή₯­…΄‘…́͑½έΈΡ‘…Ё₯ΉΡΙ…ΥΡ•Ι₯Ή”)₯Ή™ΥΝ₯½Έ½˜„ΝΑ•₯™₯Œ™½Ι΅Υ±…Ρ₯½Έ½˜•™…Α₯Ι₯Έ(‘5•ΡΙ₯ΥΙ— Έ°5•Ι¬Ή₯΅…°!•…±Ρ €‘…́‰•Ή•™₯₯…°)•™™•Ρ́½ΈΝΥ‰Ν•ΕΥ•ΉΠΙ•ΑΙ½‘ՍΡ₯Ω”Α•Ι™½Ι΅…Ή”)½˜…™™•Ρ•½έΜΈQ‘₯́ΑΙ½‘ՍЁ₯́Ή½Π…Ω…₯±…‰±”)₯ΈΡ‘”UMΈM•Ω•Ι…°ΝΡΥ‘₯•Μ‘…Ω”•α…΅₯Ή•)ΑΙ½ΝΡ…±…Ή‘₯Έ…‘΅₯Ή₯ΝΡΙ…Ρ₯½Έ™½ΘΡΙ•…Ρ΅•ΉΠ)½ΘΑΙ•Ω•ΉΡ₯½Έ½˜•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯Μ°έ₯Ρ‘½ΥЁ…Ήδ)•Ω₯‘•Ή”½˜•™™₯…δ°•₯Ρ‘•Θ™½ΘΙ•‘Ս₯Ήœ₯Ή₯‘•Ή”)½Θ₯΅ΑΙ½Ω₯ΉœΙ•ΑΙ½‘ՍΡ₯½Έ€‘…±ΫΌ•Π…°Έ°€Θΐΐδ°)Υ‰ΥŒ•Π…°Έ°€ΘΐΔň°!…₯΅•Ι°•Π…°Έ°€ΘΐΔΘ€Έ)AΙ•Ω•ΉΡ₯½Έ½˜•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯́ɕΝΡ́±…ɝ•±δ½Έ)΅…Ή…•΅•ΉΠ½˜‘₯•Ρ…Ιδ₯ΉΡ…­”…ΉΑ•Ι₯Α…ΙΡΥΙ₯•ΉΠ)•Ή•Ιδ‰…±…Ή”ΈI•‘ՍΡ₯½Έ½˜΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯́₯Ή₯‘•Ή”)έ₯±°Ι•‘Ս”•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯́Ι₯Ν¬Έ …±Ω₯Ήœ…Ή)Α½ΝΡΑ…ΙΡΥ΄‘ε₯•Ή”…Ι”₯΅Α½ΙΡ…ΉΠΈ) •ΙΩ₯₯Ρ₯́…ΉAΥΙΥ±•ΉΠY…₯Ή…°₯͍‘…ɝ”)±Ρ‘½Υ Ω₯Ν₯‰±”ΑΥΙΥ±•ΉΠΩ…₯Ή…°•αΥ‘…Ρ”΅…δ)…½΅Α…Ήδ΅½Ι”Ν•Ω•Ι”™½Ι΅Μ½˜•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯Μ°)₯Ё‘…́‰•½΅”±•…ȁё…Ё½έ́΅…䁑…Ω”Ω₯Ν₯‰±”)Ι•ΑΙ½‘ՍΡ₯Ω”ΡΙ…Π•αΥ‘…Ρ”‰ΥЁ‰”™Ι•”½˜)•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯ΜΈ%Ё₯́…ΝΝΥ΅•‰δ΅½ΝЁ₯ΉΩ•ΝΡ₯…Ρ½ΙΜ)Ρ‘…ЁΑΙ₯΅…Ι䁍•ΙΩ₯₯Ρ₯́₯́ё”΅…©½Θ…ΥΝ”½˜„)Ω…₯Ή…°•αΥ‘…Ρ”₯ΈΡ‘”…‰Ν•Ή”½˜•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯…°)₯Ή™±…΅΅…Ρ₯½ΈΈM•Ω•Ι…°±₯Ή•Μ½˜•Ω₯‘•Ή”ΝΥΑΑ½ΙΠ)Ρ‘₯́½Ή±ΥΝ₯½ΈΈ%ΈΑ₯½Ή••Ι₯Ήœέ½Ι¬½Έ₯‘•ΉΡ₯™ε₯Ήœ)±₯Ή₯…°™₯Ή‘₯ΉΜ…ΝΝ½₯…Ρ•έ₯Ρ Ι•‘Ս•™•ΙΡ₯±₯Ρδ°)1• ±…ΉŒ•Π…°Έ™½ΥΉΡ‘…Ё₯ΉΙ•…Ν••ΙΩ₯…°)‘₯…΅•Ρ•Θ…™Ρ•Θ€Μέ••­ΜΑ½ΝΡΑ…ΙΡΥ΄έ…́½Ή”)™…Ρ½Θ€‘…±½Ήœέ₯Ρ ΑΥΙΥ±•ΉΠΩ…₯Ή…°‘₯͍‘…ɝ”€)ΑΙ•‘₯Ρ₯ΉœΙ•‘Ս•±₯­•±₯‘½½½˜ΑΙ•Ή…Ήδ(‘1• ±…ΉŒ•Π…°Έ°€ΘΐΐΘ€Έ%Ή‘••°₯‘•ΉΡ₯™₯…Ρ₯½Έ½˜)…Έ•Ή±…ɝ••ΙΩ₯ΰέ…́ɕ½Ή₯镐…́„‘…Ι‰₯Ή•Θ)½˜Α½½Θ™•ΙΡ₯±₯Ρ䁡Ս •…Ι±₯•Θ€‘Q•ΉΉ…ΉΠ…Ή)A•‘‘₯½Ι°€ΔδΨΰ€Έ%ЁΉ½άΝ••΅Μ±₯­•±δΡ‘…Ёё•Ν”)½έ́‘…Ω”•ΙΩ₯…°‘…΅…”°ΝΥΝΡ…₯Ή•‘ΥΙ₯Ήœ)Α…ΙΡΥΙ₯Ρ₯½Έ°…Ή₯Ή‘•Α•Ή‘•ΉΠ½˜•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯Μ°)…±Ρ‘½Υ Ρ‘”ΡέΌ½Ή‘₯Ρ₯½ΉΜ…ΈΌ΅•α₯ΝΠΈΥ‰ΥŒ)•Π…°Έ™½ΥΉΡ‘…Ё•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯́…ΉΑΥΙΥ±•ΉΠ)Ω…₯Ή…°‘₯͍‘…ɝ”‘…₯Ή‘•Α•Ή‘•ΉΠ…Ή…‘‘₯Ρ₯Ω”)‘•ΡΙ₯΅•ΉΡ…°•™™•Ρ́½ΈΙ•ΑΙ½‘ՍΡ₯½Έ…ΉΡ‘…Ёё•δ)‘…±…ɝ•±δΝ•Α…Ι…Ρ”Ι₯Ν¬™…Ρ½ΙΜ€‘Υ‰ΥŒ•Π…°Έ°(ΘΐΔΑˆ€ΈΉ‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯́݅́ΑΙ•‘₯ΝΑ½Ν•ΡΌ΅…₯Ή±δ)‰δΉ•…Ρ₯Ω”•Ή•Ιδ‰…±…Ή”°έ‘₯±”•ΙΩ₯₯Ρ₯ΜΌ)ΑΥΙΥ±•ΉΠΩ…₯Ή…°‘₯͍‘…ɝ”έ…́΅½ΝЁ½΅΅½Ή±δ)„½ΉΝ•ΕΥ•Ή”½˜½‰ΝΡ•ΡΙ₯…°½΅Α±₯…Ρ₯½ΉΜ°)₯Ή±Υ‘₯ΉœI4Έ ½Ρ ½Ή‘₯Ρ₯½ΉΜ½Υȁέ₯Ρ ‘₯‘•