Review/Oorsig Volume 22, Issue 03 - Page 15

Volume 22 • Issue 03 • 2018 major contributor to the pathogenesis, it is not clear how to avoid a reduction in voluntary intake, which occurs in some cows even in the absence of any social stressors such as group changes and by eliminating competition for bunk space by feeding cows individually (unpublished observation). Although overcrowding affects feeding behavior (Olofsson, 1999, Proudfoot et al., 2009), there is no evidence that stocking rate affects metritis incidence (Silva et al., 2014). Nevertheless, it seems prudent to avoid overcrowding of dry cows, frequent group changes and mixing heifers and older cows. Hygiene plays a role in metritis prevalence, and attention should be paid to hygiene in calving pens (Schuenemann et al., 2011). Herds using straw bedding in calving pens have lower incidence of metritis than those using other forms of bedding (Kaneene and Miller, 1994). Recently a multivalent vaccine has been reported to reduce risk of metritis in dairy cows (Machado et al., 2014) and is currently in clinical trials. There is some prospect of genetic selection for reduction of metri F26FV6R6PfW7FvF'2fR&W'FVBW&F&ƗGbWG&F0F&R2v2B#bf"&֗&W0B6V6B7FF6w2&W7V7FfVǒƖW@FW'2fR&W'FVB&RFW7@W&F&ƗG&vrg&"Frǖ0WBvBWB#F"vRfP'6W'fVB&vRFffW&V6W2WG&F26FV6Rf'7B7FFFVvFW'2bFffW&VB'V26fpFR6RV"R&vRW&B6VRF&Pǖ'62vVW2V6FrFƖP&V6WF'2BFRWF&V6WF"vVRfR&VVƖVBFWG&F26FV6RRWB#VFWB#22F227W'&VFǒ&Vb7FfR&W6V&6&R67&WFRwVFVƖW0&RƖVǒFVW&vRWG&WG&67W'227V6f27G'GVЦ6FF7G'GV6w2B26&7FW&V@'FR67VVFbW'VVB"V6W'VV@WVFFW2FRWFW'W2FR&W6V6Rb7FfP6'W2WFWV76Ɩ26w2BffV7G2&WBBPbF'6w2V67FF&F"WBb'WBG26FV6R&R7&V6VB'&WFPW6Rbv$FRV&ǒ7G'GVW&@WFW&wFWBBvVW&gVF0FVVB6w2vF6vf6BWFW&RFvVB6VFWB#"'WBb6w2FgVFPFRf6RbvrWFW&R6F֖FFW&6FWfVVBbWG&2FRVFWG&FvR"VFvVW2&VV6R`tc,G&FFǒBvVW2fR&VVFP7B6&7FW&6FVBg&66W2`WG&&&V&WB#R'WBWFvV֖0WFG2FV7G&FR&WfV6RbbvVW0ffV7FVB2VG6VWB#R7V6f2f&bWG&266VV6w0fV7FVBvFG&G&62fWGW2&GW&BrB2B66FW&VBgW'FW"W&RFRG&VFVBb66Rf"WG&2tc,"G2w2FR'VbWBsrfVƒW@GBBwW7Fg766WWBbVFwVBfג#G&VFVB&W7VG2WFVǗ62&Vf&W7G'W2WV6b67VVFVBWVFFR@&7FW&v66V&6RbFRWFW'W2&W@RbG&VFVB66W2&V7W'&V6RbWG&gFW"6vRG&VFVB67W'2F2R`66W2FR'VbWBsrfVƒWBf'7B6W'f6R66WF&FRb&FVǐ3R"&Rfw2G&VFVB'WBR`2&RWV7FVBF66VfRvF0FB6V֖F2FR'VbWBsrGB@wW7Fg76W7G&vV2FRf&bW7G&F7FR`FWF7F&W7G&fR6&VVW6VBf"FPG&VFVBbWG&7V6W6R2rVv6VG&W2B6VB&R&VV&W&V@FBW7G&vV2&RWFVǗF26w2FR6Ɩ6&W76RFW7G&vVFW&2&W"FF@WV7FVBgFW"G&VFVBvFtc,fVƒW@B7GG&VFVB66WF&W7VG0&R&W"&FvW"FR'VbWBsrBvW"fVƒWB6FV6Rb77F0f&F6V6RgFW"G&VFVBbWG&vFW7G&vV2&VFfRF&7FvF20&VV&W'FVBR7GVGfVƒWBG&gW&RgW6FFRWFW'W2v06&VBvFVFW"W7G&F"&7FvFG&VFVB&F66W2FRW6RbG&gW&P6vf6FǒFW&W76VB7GG&VFVB66WF&FW2FW6RFF&fFRFFFWfFV6Pv7BG&WFW&RgW62FƗG`G&VFVBf"&fRWFW&RF6&FW'2VFWG&F0VFWG&F26WFW2&VfW'&VBF27V&6Ɩ6VFWG&F22FVfVB2fFbFPVFWG&VB26F6V6RB2@66VB'77FV֖26v2BG6ǐ67W'26Ɩ6ǒ&VWfBf&gFW"BvVV07G'GVVFWG&F2&WV&W2VFWG&7Fwv&W'BWB2v&W'BWBv&W'BWB#RGV'V2WB#""&7&WGBWB2f"6f6rFv62'W@G2&W6V6R6&RfW'&VBg&FR&FV"WV7FRW7FW&6R66VG&Fb&V6fW&V@WFW&RfvRfVB6VrWB#"FV2Х&&6VBBGV'V2#R"&R6ǒFPP