Review/Oorsig Volume 22, Issue 03 - Page 12

Oorsig/Review Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of postpartum uterine disease Robert O. Gilbert Professor of Theriogenology, Associate Dean, Academic Affairs,Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine,Basseterre, St. Kitts & Nevis, West Indies. From RuVASA Proceedings 2018 Introduction Postpartum diseases are common in dairy cows, and their incidence contributes to reduced fertility and increased risk of culling, making their prevention and management extremely important. Reproductive efficiency has a major impact on economic success of any dairy production unit. Control of reproductive diseases is important for maintenance of health and welfare of dairy cows, for minimizing use of antibiotics and assuring a wholesome, safe and nutritious product. Here we will consider retained fetal membranes (RFM), puerperal metritis, pyometra, endometritis, cervicitis and purulent vaginal discharge as major postpartum uterine diseases. Retained Fetal Membranes Although bovine fetal membranes are normally expelled within 3 – 8 hours after delivery of the calf (Wehrend et al., 2005) retention of fetal membranes is usually defined as failure of expulsion by 24 hours. The incidence in dairy cows is about 5 – 15% and is higher for older cows than for primipara (Joosten et al., 1987, Grohn and Rajala-Schultz, 2000). Predisposing factors include abortion, stillbirth, multiple birth, dystocia, uterine torsion, heat stress, hydrops allantois, and periparturient hypocalcemia, low calf birthweight and premature parturition (Joosten et al., 1987) and induced calving. RFM 12 is associated with many infectious con ‘₯Ρ₯½ΉΜ°)₯Ή±Υ‘₯Ήœ)‰ΙՍ•±±½Ν₯Μ°)…΅Αε±½‰…Ρ•Ι₯½Ν₯Μ)…Ή…ΝΑ•Ι₯±±½Ν₯ΜΈ9ΥΡΙ₯Ρ₯½Ή…°…Ύ͕ΝՍ …Μ)½Ω•Ι½Ή‘₯Ρ₯½Ή₯Ήœ½˜‘Ι䁍½έ́…Ή‘•™₯₯•Ή₯•Μ)½˜…Ι½Ρ•Ή”°Ν•±•Ή₯Υ΄…ΉY₯Ρ…΅₯Έ‘…Ω”‰••Έ)₯ΉΙ₯΅₯Ή…Ρ•Έ …ΡΡ±”Ρ‘…Ё‘…Ω”I4½Ή”΅…䁉”)…ЁΙ•…ѕȁΙ₯Ν¬½˜Ρ‘”½Ή‘₯Ρ₯½Έ…™Ρ•ΘΝΥ‰Ν•ΕΥ•ΉΠ)Α…ΙΡΥΙ₯Ρ₯½Έ€‘)½½ΝΡ•Έ•Π…°Έ°€Δδΰά€…Ή½έΜ)έ₯Ρ I4‘…Ω”„‘₯‘•Θ₯Ή₯‘•Ή”½˜΅•Ρ…‰½±₯Œ)‘₯Ν•…Ν•Μ°΅…ΝΡ₯Ρ₯Μ°΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯Μ°…Ή•Ω•ΈΝΥ‰Ν•ΕΥ•ΉΠ)…‰½ΙΡ₯½Έ€‘ΛΩ‘Έ•Π…°Έ°€Δδδΐ€Έ) ±₯Ή₯…°Ν₯ΉΜ½˜I4…Ι”ΥΝΥ…±±δ½‰Ω₯½Ύչ±•ΝΜ)Ρ‘”΅•΅‰Ι…Ή•Μ…Ι”Ι•Ρ…₯Ή•έ₯Ρ‘₯ΈΡ‘”ΥΡ•ΙΎ½Θ)½Ή±δΑΙ½©•Π₯ΉΡΌΡ‘”•ΙΩ₯ΰ½ΘΩ…₯Ή„…ΉΙ•ΕΥ₯Ι”)„Ω…₯Ή…°•α…΅₯Ή…Ρ₯½ΈΡΌ‰”‘•Ρ•Ρ•Έ ½έ́έ₯Ρ )I4ΑΙ½‘Ս”±•Ν́΅₯±¬₯ΈΡ‘”…™™•Ρ•±…Ρ…Ρ₯½ΈΈ)Q‘₯́₯́•ΝΑ•₯…±±δΡΙΥ”™½Θ…™™•Ρ•™₯ΙΝЁ±…Ρ…Ρ₯½Έ)½έΜ€‘I…©…±„…ΉΙ½‘Έ°€Δδδΰ€Έ ½έ́έ₯Ρ I4)…Ι”…Ё₯ΉΙ•…Ν•Ι₯Ν¬½˜‘•Ω•±½Α₯Ήœ΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯Μ°)•Ή‘½΅•ΡΙ₯Ρ₯Μ°½Ω…Ι₯…ΈεΝΡΜ€‘Ι½‘Έ…ΉI…©…±„΄)M‘Υ±Ρθ°€Θΐΐΐ€½Θ΅…ΝΡ₯Ρ₯Μ€‘M‘Υ­­•Έ°€Δδΰδ°)M‘Υ­­•Έ•Π…°Έ°€Δδΰδ€Έ%ΉΙ•…Ν•Ι₯Ν¬½˜΅…ΝΡ₯Ρ₯Μ)Ι•₯Ή™½Ι•ΜΡ‘”₯΅Α½ΙΡ…Ή”½˜₯΅Α…₯Ι•₯΅΅ΥΉ”)™ΥΉΡ₯½Έ₯ΈΡ‘”Α…Ρ‘½•Ή•Ν₯́½˜I4Έ ½έΜ)έ₯Ρ I4Ρ•ΉΡΌ•αΑ•Ι₯•Ή”΅½Ι”‘…έѼ™₯ΙΝΠ)₯ΉΝ•΅₯Ή…Ρ₯½Έ°΅½Ι”‘…έ™Ι½΄™₯ΙΝЁ₯ΉΝ•΅₯Ή…Ρ₯½Έ)ΡΌ½Ή•ΑΡ₯½Έ…Ή΅½Ι”‘…έ½Α•ΈΡ‘…Έ½έΜ)έ₯Ρ‘½ΥЁI4€‘5…₯ι½Έ•Π…°Έ°€ΘΐΐΠ€Έ)5…ΉΥ…°Ι•΅½Ω…°½˜Ρ‘”Ι•Ρ…₯Ή•΅•΅‰Ι…Ή•Μ)‘½•ΜΉΌ½½…Ή΅…䁑Ό‘…Ι΄°Α…ΙΡ₯Υ±…Ι±δ)έ‘•Έ™ΥΡΥΙ”Ι•ΑΙ½‘ՍΡ₯Ω”Α½Ρ•ΉΡ₯…°₯́ΥΝ•…