Review/Oorsig Volume 22, Issue 02 - Page 8

Oorsig/Review in a study conducted by Ferguson et al. (2004) where feeding complexed organic trace minerals to cows that experienced a transition health disorder, improved reproductive performance (i.e., pregnancy rates) to a level similar to that of cows that never experienced a transition disorder. The same results did not occur when only inorganic trace minerals sources were fed (Figure 9; Ferguson et al., 2004). Inflammation and the Mammary Gland In the mammary gland, the keratin plug of the teat is one of the first lines of defense to protect the animal from a mammary infection (i.e., mastitis). Feeding zinc from complexed organic trace minerals has been shown to increase teat keratin production in cows, which may protect the cow from a mammary infection (Jones, 1995). Furthermore, elevated somatic cell counts (SCC) in milk are a key indicator of mammary gland inflammation (Pyörälä, 2003), and numerous studies have confirmed that feeding complexed organic trace minerals decreases SCC in lactating dairy cattle (Kellogg et al., 2003, 2004; Sobhanirad et al., 2010; Nayeri et al., 2014). A 12-trial tetrabasic chloride (ZnCl). In both the thermal- neutral and heat-stress phases, plasma lactose increased in cows receiving only zinc from ZnCl but remained unchanged in cows consuming zinc from complexed organic trace minerals. These results indicate that feeding zinc from complexed organic trace minerals in place of ZnCl better maintains mammary tight junction integrity, which is crucial for milk secretion and avoiding milk leakage from the lumen of alveoli (Weng et al., 2016). INFLAMMATION AND THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE SYSTEM The adaptive immune system differs from the innate immune system in the sense that it has the ability to recognize specific antigens and has a memory function. In contrast, the innate immune system does not have memory, includes anatomical features that prevent bacterial entry into the body and binds to general classes of bacterial or viral antigens. Components of the innate immune system include epithelial barriers, Figure 10 - The impact of complexed organic trace minerals on Somatic Cell Count summary indicated that feeding cows zinc from complexed organic trace minerals reduced SCC on average by nearly 100 (1000/mL; Kellogg et al., 2004; Figure 10). Although SCC is a reliable indicator of inflammation within the mammary gland, integrity of the mammary epithelium is also of paramount importance. Recent data indicates that zinc from complexed organic trace minerals may impact mammary gland epithelial integrity. In this study, mid-lactation cows subjected to either thermal-neutral environments or heat- stress conditions were fed 40 ppm zinc from either complexed organic trace minerals or zinc 8 macrophages, granulocytes, mast cells and natural killer cells. Binding to specific peptide sequences would be reserved for the adaptive (acquired) immune system components and their memory-like function. Components of the adaptive immune system include B-lymphocytes (10 percent to 20 percent of circulating lymphocyte population) and T- lymphocytes (60 percent to 70 percent of circulating lymphocyte population). For simplicity sake, data from multiple cell classes will be discussed herein, although they may not be specific to the adaptive immune system, as many of these cell types work in concert to mount an inflammatory event and successful immune response.