Review/Oorsig Volume 22, Issue 02 - Page 7

Volume 22 • Issue 02 • 2018 and increased number of goblet cells in pigs. Gastric nutrient-intubation of piglets at birth, d 10, and d 21, with 40 mg of zinc from complexed organic trace minerals increased the number of epithelial goblet cells of the jejunual villi and tended to increase mucosal thickness (Metzler- Zebeli et al., 2010). Inflammation and the Respiratory Tract Zinc appears to have an important role in the integrity and defense mechanisms of the respiratory epithelium (antioxidant, organelle stabilizer, anti-apoptotic agent, epithelial healing and renewal, anti- inflammatory; Truong-Tran et al., 2000). A study in rabbits has shown that an antibacterial peptide with zinc as a cofactor is able to reduce E. coli colony counts by 70 percent in the respiratory tract (LaForce et al., 1984). A study measuring intracellular zinc in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells showed zinc was important in the reduction of LPS-induced apoptosis (Thambiayya, 2012). While some data exists indicating the role complexed organic trace mineral s play in the respiratory tract of poultry, data regarding its impact on the respiratory epithelium in mammals are limited. Analysis of beef data indicates that calves born to cows fed complexed organic trace minerals had a greater than 50 percent decrease in treatments for bovine respiratory disease during the growing phase, which contributed to a greater return on investment for those animals (Marques et al., 2016). Research regarding the impact of complexed organic trace minerals on the respiratory epithelium of ruminants presents a great research opportunity. Inflammation and the Reproductive Tract Follow the birthing process, a dramatic physiological shift occurs in animals. One such shift occurs in the epithelium of the reproductive tract. It is critical for production animals to mount an effective immune response in order to effectively eliminate reproductive tract pathogens that enter during the birthing process and to repair tissues damaged during birthing. This helps prepare the animal for subsequent pregnancies. Analysis of endometrial gene expression indicates that cows fed complexed organic trace minerals attain a pro-inflammatory state earlier as compared to cows fed only inorganic minerals (Batistel et al., 2017). This may indicate that cows fed complexed organic trace minerals were able to effectively eliminate pathogens from the reproductive tract and repair damaged tissue more quickly. This is further confirmed by the differential expression of other genes known to play a role in eliminating pathogenic bacteria that have invaded the epithelium. However, gene expression data alone does not necessarily correlate to a phenotypic response. A key finding related to feeding complexed organic trace minerals is the improvement in reproductive performance above that attained by feeding only inorganic mineral sources. This was clearly illustrated Figure 9 - Impact of Zinpro Performance Minerals^a on Pregnancy Rate of Cows with or without a Transition Disease 7