Oorsig/Review Anaerobic culture • • • • • Prepare 4 unfixed air dried smears from the mucosal surface of the affected area / ileum. Allow adequate time for drying before wrapping and sealing as per FAT smears. Collect a 3cm portion of ileum/affected intestine which should be tied off at both ends and then placed in a sample envelope which is folded to exclude all air. This sealed sample envelope is packed with absorbent material and transported at 4ºC to the laboratory. Examine smears for clostridia prior to cultures being prepared Histopathology • • • • Collect multiple intestinal segments including affected and unaffected areas. Collect mesenteric lymphnode and include target tissues of enterotoxaemia (kidney, lung, brain) Intestinal sections collected should be retained as tubes and open at each end to retain intestinal wall architecture Rapid fixation is important for the maintenance of villous and micro-villous morphology. • • One end of the tube of intestine is grasped with forceps, formalin is then aspirated into a syringe and gently washed through the intestinal tube to remove the ingesta. The intestinal specimen is then released and allowed to sink in the formalin. Sample Packaging and Transport • • • • • • • • All samples should be triple packed Ensure adequate absorbent material is included to absorb any leakage All packages should be water-tight and correctly labelled Fresh and formalin-fixed samples should be packed separately to exclude formalin-fume artefacts Submission forms should be complete and include animal specie, age, sex, numbers affected and other relevant clinical data. Recent treatments and vaccination history should also be included. Good historical and clinical information allows for more critical examination of results Forms should be placed in zipper, waterproof, plastic envelopes, to avoid smudging of ink. All samples, except fluid for anaerobic culture and formalin-fixed tissues, should be Continued from page 10 References Anon 1996 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle 7th Revised Edn. National Academy Press, Washington DC. Anon 2002 Plains Nutrition Council Spring Conference. Publication No. AREC 02-20 Texas A&M Research and Extension Center, Amarillo Bingham S, Savory A 1990 Holistic Resource Management Workbook. Island Press, Washington DC. CNCPS v 4.0 Beef Cattle software help file. Fulkerson W.J. and Donaghy D.J. 2001 Plant soluble carbohydrate reserves and senescence – key criteria for developing an effective grazing management system for rye grass-based pastures: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 261-275 Hoover W H 1991 Rumen Digestive Physiology 20 and Microbial Ecology. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Vol.7 no. 2 Larson R.L., Pierce V.L. 1999 Agricultural Economics for Veterinarians: Partial Budgets for Beef Cow Herds. Compendium of Continuing Education. Vol 21, no 9, S210-S219 Peyraud J-L and Delaby L 2000 Ideal concentrate feeds for grazing dairy cows – responses to supplementation in interaction with grazing management and grass quality. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Editors: Garnsworthy P.C. and Wiseman J. Nottingham University Press. Tainton N.M. (Red.) 1999 Veld Management in Southern Africa. University of Natal Press. Van Oudshoorn F 1999 Guide to Grasses of Southern Africa. Briza.