Review/Oorsig Volume 22, Issue 01 - Page 13

Volume 22 • Issue 01 • 2018 biomass diversity, rainfall, soil type and grazing strategies. Pastures nutritional values depend on species, fertilizer applied, water availability and grazing intensity. Estimated values are available from publications or samples can be sent away for nutritional profiles. Grain and legumes crops can either be used as grazing or made into silage. Yield and nutritional values depend on species, stage when grazed or ensilaged, grazing strategies e.g. strip grazing, as well as water and fertilizer applied. Crop residues are easy to evaluate and crop yield is directly related to residue available. Maize, soyabeans, dry beans, grain sorghum, sunflowers and small grains e.g. wheat are the most common in South Africa. Generally, yield is equal to residues. Thus a maize crop of 6 tons = 6000kg of residues of which about 40% can be utilised. Therefor 2 400kg. The same can be applied to soyabeans and grain sorghum. Sunflower stover can be used but less residues are available, only 20%. Other small grain stovers do not have much grazing value. Cover crops are becoming an important feed source and as with normal pastures, yield and nutritional value will depend on species, rainfall and fertilizer applied. Number of grazing (feed) days can then be calculated for each of these resources. After this, time periods can be identified when feed is limited and/or nutritional value is inadequate. Supplementary feed needs can then be determined or pastures/grazing strategies can be adjusted to change av ailability or nutritional value. References Feedipedia – animal feed resources information system VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE FREE STATE CAMPUS, BLOEMFONTEIN BY MABOEE NTHEJANE. Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree MAGISTER SCIENTIAE (BOTANY) In the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences Department of Plant Science. EVALUATION OF TECHNIQUES TO DETERMINE THE PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF CULTIVATED PASTURES by SUNET VERMEULEN Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MAGISTER SCIENTIAE In the Faculty of Natural & Agricultural Sciences Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences (Grassland Science) University of the Free State Bloemfontein South Africa. Research & Technology BULLETIN 2015/15 FORAGE CEREALS FOR DRYLAND PASTURE PRODUCTION Sigrun Ammann & Derryn Nash WINTER COVER CROPS FOR MAIZE SILAGE PRODUCTION Alan Manson1 , James Arathoon2 , Cathy Stevens3 , Elise de Jager1 , Alistair Kent1 1Analytical Services; 2Agronomy; 3Biometry; All Research & Technology Development, Cedara. E-mail: alan.manson@kzndae.gov.za Research & Technology BULLETIN 2015/14 VELD MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES Sheila Househam Beef Production: The Basics Crop Residues for Animal Feeding. Department of Agricultural. CROP RESIDUES FOR ANIMAL FEEDING Crop Residues for Animal Feeding William D Gertenbach Animal Science: Cedara KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs. Underutilised resources as animal feedstuffs. 1983. National Academic Press 13