Review/Oorsig Volume 22, Issue 01 - Page 10

Oorsig/Review synthesis – all these for the benefit of the rumen microbial population and rumen microbial protein yield. It is here that timely movement of cattle to new grazing camps – especially during the growth season - becomes the most important decision on a beef ranch. Move the large herd to a new camp in the afternoon when starch concentration in the plant is highest and pasture intake rate (bites per minute) is expected to be high. The ultimate challenge is to maximize rumen microbial protein yield from pasture. Continued on page20 References CPD a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. HOW TO COMPLETE YOUR CPD AND CLAIM YOUR 1 POINT: Follow the link from Some of the latest articles from Vetlink Equine Piroplasmosis in South Africa: AC/1876/18 | SMS code = a52538 Cytology of effusions as well as Sample collection and preparation technique: AC/1847/18 | SMS Code=a6782 Heartwater in Cattle and Small Ruminants : AC/1788/17| SMS code = a23259 Lumpy Skin Disease of Springbok: AC/1785/17 | SMS code = a19833 Actinobacillus equuli Infections in Equines: AC/1787/17 | SMS code = a68015 Compulsive Disorders in Dogs: AC/1760/17 | SMS code = a56936 AC/1848/18 1. Beef cow-calf herd efficiency is most accurately measured as: Total weaning biomass per annum Profit per Hectare per annum Calving % Weaning % Weaning mass as a percentage of cow mass at weaning 2. Healthy soils can be described as: Soils with a high biomass of living organisms Soils in which the Ethylene-Oxygen Cycle functions efficiently – which ensures plant root uptake of soil nutrients Soils which are porous to make capillary water uptake by plant roots possible Soils with a high Glomalin concentration, which is a measure of carbon availability for the plant to make carbohydrates All of the above a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. 10 3. Passage rate of ingesta through the rumen is determined PRIMARILY by: Rate of dry matter intake by the cow Non-structural carbohydrate concentration in the rumen fluid Number of cellulolytic bacteria that colonize the fiber particles Total crude protein concentration in the plant foliage eaten Volatile fatty acid production in the rumen 4. The PRIMARY reason for destocking, if necessary, is the following: To match the available DM on pasture at the onset of the dormant season with the number of Animal Units to be sustained during the entire dormant season? The pregnancy status of the cows determined in Autumn The body condition of the cow at the time of pregnancy diagnosis Cattle numbers must not exceed the set carrying capacity of the farm – e.g. 10 Ha per Animal Unit Selling weaner calves off to the feedlot for cash-flow