Racial Profiling Reports 2015 Racial Profiling Report - Page 54

5. The officers proceed on the assumption that drug courier work is involved by detaining the driver and passengers by the roadside 6. The driver is asked to consent to a vehicle search – if the driver refuses, the officers use other procedures (waiting on a canine unit, criminal record checks, license-plate checks, etc.), and intimidate the driver (with the threat of detaining him/her, obtaining a warrant, etc.) 3.1.2 LEARNING OBJECTIVE: The student will be able to identify elements of a traffic stop which would constitute reasonable suspicion of drug courier activity. A. Drug courier profile (adapted from a profile developed by the DEA) 1. Driver is nervous or anxious beyond the ordinary anxiety and cultural communication styles 2. Signs of long-term driving (driver is unshaven, has empty food containers, etc.) 3. Vehicle is rented 4. Driver is a young male, 20-35 5. No visible luggage, even though driver is traveling 6. Driver was over-reckless or over-cautious in driving and responding to signals 7. Use of air fresheners B. Drug courier activity indicators by themselves are usually not sufficient to justify a stop 3.1.3 LEARNING OBJECTIVE: The student will be able to identify elements of a traffic stop which could constitute reasonable suspicion of criminal activity. A. Thinking about the totality of circumstances in a vehicle stop B. Vehicle exterior 1. Non-standard repainting (esp. on a new vehicle) 2. Signs of hidden cargo (heavy weight in trunk, windows do not roll down, etc.) 3. Unusual license plate suggesting a switch (dirty plate, bugs on back plate, etc.) 4. Unusual circumstances (pulling a camper at night, kids' bikes with no kids, etc.) C. Pre-stop indicators 1. Not consistent with traffic flow 2. Driver is overly cautious, or driver/passengers repeatedly look at police car 3. Driver begins using a car- or cell-phone when signaled to stop 4. Unusual pull-over behavior (ignores signals, hesitates, pulls onto new street, moves objects in car, etc.) D. Vehicle interior 1. Rear seat or interior panels have been opened, there are tools or spare tire, etc. 2. Inconsistent items (anti-theft club with a rental, unexpected luggage, etc.) Resources