PSIE Industrial Magazine Volume 1 Issue 1 - Page 38

Volume 1, Issue 1 The lean in lean manufacturing refers to the elimination of all waste. Waste is defined as any activity that creates no value-and value is defined by the end user / customer. Before we can even talk about waste, we need to define what is value added versus non-value added processes in a manufacturing environment. Value added is any activity that changes the fit, form, or function of a product. This typically is a modification to a products /services performance that enhances its efficiency. The key to value added is that the customer must be willing to pay for these activities. So, what is non-value added? Non-value added is any activity that does not change the fit, form, or function. The customer is typically not willing to pay for these. These are the costs that must become the focus to be reduced or eliminated. Lean manufacturing derives much of its direction from the methods used by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota. These methods became internationally recognized as a result of Womack, Jones, and Roo’s book, The Machine That Changed the World (1990). They studied the practices of 90 automobile assembly plants in 17 countries to learn about Japanese successes in manufacturing. They reported that the hallmarks of lean production are teamwork, communication, and efficient use of resources. The lean approach for manufacturers is to improve their organizations by focusing on the elimination of any and all muda—the Japanese word for waste. The approach focuses on continuous system wide improvement, not only in the manufacturing division but business wide, and advocates methods to control the flow of material on the shop floor (Moore and Scheinkopf, 1998). A few years before The Machine That Changed the World was published, Taiichi Ohno, considered by many to be the father of lean manufacturing, published his book, Toyota Production System (1988). Page 38 Ohno explained the main foundations of lean manufacturing. These principles guided the Japanese companies that were described as “world class” by Womack and Jones (1996). Ohno identified eight categories of muda which cover virtually all of the means by which organizations waste or lose money. As described by Ohno (1988), the eight wastes are as follows ; 1) Defects Defects are usually due to inspection and rework of defective material in inventory. Some causes of defects are:  Weak process capability  Poor quality controls  Uncontrolled inventory levels  Poor process documentation  Misunderstood customer needs  Desig (+ ()Aȁ((Ȥ=ٕɽՍѥ()=ٕɽՍѥ́ɔѡ́ɕեɕ)ѡѽȀɱȁѡ́ɕեɕ)ѡѽȁɽՍЁѡѽ)́Ё݅и((0