Popular Culture Review 29.1 (Spring 2018) - Page 44

the speech, such as a speaker’s gender, age, family, prior acts, and prior reputation. Often creating intrinsic ethos is a matter of placing a favorable spin on elements of extrinsic ethos, such as Trump’s transmutation of inexperience into the claim to be an “outsider” who would “drain the swamp.” The other two types of argument within Aristotelian rhetorical theory, those from “pathos” or the emotions of the audience and those from “logos” or reasoning also come into play. In fact, the three types of rhetorical proof can be mapped onto Max Weber’s seminal categorizations of the three types of legitimate rule (1958) in the sense that the different types of argument are often used in varying proportions to legitimate different types of authority. Weber characterizes the three main types of legitimate rule as: Traditional Authority: Within this system, authority is grounded in antiquity, with historical tradition conferring legitimacy. This sort of authority is often hereditary, though other methods such as prophetic signs or appointment of a successor by a current leader in front of witnesses can also function to confer legitimacy. Although authority in such systems is personal in the sense of being centered on the person of the leader, in another way it is completely impersonal, as it is rarely dependent on individual characteristics or abilities. A hereditary monarch is legitimate due to having the right parents, not due to intelligence, charm, diligence, or any other particular qualification. The Azeroth of World of Warcraft mirrors many oral-traditional societies in relying heavily on traditional authority (Poster 2016). Rhetorically, this sort of authority is grounded in extrinsic ethos. The Warchief of the Horde, the High Chieftain of the Tauren, the Prince of the Blood Elves, and the other racial leaders within World of Warcraft fall into this category and often reference tradition and antiquity in discussing their positions. The exceptions to this pattern are the goblins, a race of merchants organized into trade cartels, and the Forsaken, who are so new as to be lacking in traditions. Charismatic Authority: Unlike traditional authority, charismatic authority relies on the personal characteristics of an individual. While many traditional leaders (such as Queen Elizabeth I) or legal/rational leaders (such as Justin Trudeau or John Kennedy) can display personal charisma, that is not essential to their authority, as many traditional and legalistic/rational leaders such as U.S. President Calvin Coolidge, Canadian Prime Minster Stephen Harper, and the Roman Emperor Claudius were notably uncharismatic. By contrast, the charismatic leader often has no grounds for authority other than intrinsic ethos often bolstered by emotional (pathetic) appeal. Religious prophets such as 44