Pennsylvania Nurse 2019 Pennsylvania Nurse 74.1 - Page 8

of investment if they are unable to maintain posses- sion of these permits. One of the strongest oppositions to the legalization of marijuana for medical use nationwide is the lack of scientific evidence. House Resolution 567 recom- mends for the Joint State Government Commission to allow legal research on marijuana and establish a committee to regulate it (Pennsylvania General Assembly, 2017-2018). Marijuana is classified as a Schedule I narcotic where the only legal use is in controlled studies under the investigational new drug regulations (Drug Enforcement Administration, n.d.). In September 2018, the Wolf Administration an- nounced that they certified eight medical schools as medical marijuana academic clinical research cen- ters (Hawke, McKeon, & Sniscak, 2018). Research is tremendously restricted due to single licensure issued by the Drug Enforcement Agency to legally grow marijuana for research that is held by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (Philipsen et al., 2017). Much of the literature available is not valid, reliable, or generalizable due to the inability to control extra- neous variables and lack of consistency. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) formed a committee that reviewed 10,000 publications and released a report in 2017 pertaining to the quality of evidence avail- able to date. After a comprehensive analysis of the literature, they formulated over 100 evidence-based conclusions that state there is not enough reliable evidence to formulate evidence-based recommenda- tions for many of the conditions listed in Act 16 (NASEM, 2017). Some literature supports its use in cachexia, wasting syndromes, and spasticity related to multiple sclerosis (Belendiuk, Baldini, & Bonn- Miller, 2015; Hill, 2015; Rubin, 2017). There are no existing studies showing that medical marijuana has superior efficacy to current evidence-based recom- mendations (Belendiuk et al., 2015). A factor that is identified in many research articles as a weakness is the short half-life of marijuana noting that any benefit that is observed is reversed within three to four hours (Barker, 2018; Belendiuk et al., 2015; Kramer, 2015; Rubin, 2017; Sutton, 2017). Act 16 financially supports structured studies by allot- Issue 74, 1 2019 Pennsylvania Nurse 6 Table 1. Listed Medical Conditions 1. Cancer 2. Positive status for human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immune deficiency syndrome 3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4. Parkinson’s disease 5. Multiple sclerosis 6. Damage to the nervous tissue of the spinal cord with objective neurological indication of intractable spasticity 7. Epilepsy 8. Inflammatory bowel disease 9. Neuropathies 10. Huntington’s disease 11. Crohn’s disease 12. Post-traumatic stress disorder 13. Intractable seizures 14. Glaucoma 15. Sickle cell anemia 16. Severe chronic or intractable pain of neuropathic origin or severe chronic or intractable pain in which conventional therapeutic intervention and opiate therapy is contraindicated or ineffective 17. Autism ting a portion of the imposed excise tax from grow- ers specifically for research. Major Interest Groups According to Act 16, populations that are directly in- volved are terminally ill people with life expectancy