Pennsylvania Nurse 2019 Pennsylvania Nurse 74.1 - Page 11

investigational drug which will prohibit equal access. Lack of pricing regulation may allow for inflation of the cost of legal supply making out-of-state, illegal, or cheaper products more attractive. States that have previously enacted marijuana legalization programs have demonstrated significant increases in revenue (Drug Policy, 2018). Pennsylvania, as well as other states with legalized medical marijuana, may hesi- tate to rescind legislation that provides a good source of income even though there may be valid legal, medical, and ethical reasons to do so. Although Act 16 is anticipated to generate significant revenue, it also increases the financial burden of the Pennsyl- vania Departments of Health and Human Services, Revenue, Corrections, and Education. There is also an additional financial burden for prescribers with education requirements and registration fees (Lami- nica, Boeri, & Anderson, 2016). Consumers must also obtain authorization cards, and purchases are out- of-pocket expenses unless they successfully navigate through the experimental drug authorization process of third-party payers which is cumbersome and confusing. The use of marijuana remains illegal at the federal level, and state laws do not supersede federal regula- tions. All attempts to legalize marijuana at the fed- eral level or have it re-classified by the Drug Enforce- ment Agency as a Schedule II narcotic have failed. Act 16 states that “any Community-based program to provide access to medical marijuana serve[s] as a temporary measure, pending Federal approval of and access to medical marijuana through traditional medical and pharmaceutical avenues” (Medical Mari- juana Act, 2016, p. 3). If the Controlled Substance Act becomes enforceable, it has the potential to negatively impact a significant number of people who would not be protected by state laws. Legalization of marijuana needs to go through the federal system to address many of these issues. Federal funding is needed for rigorous research to obtain scientific data to formulate evidence-based practice recommendations showing a clear benefit. Research is needed to support the reclassification of marijuana to a Schedule II controlled substance before federal consideration for legalization. References Alsterberg, C. E. (2017). State and federal powers clash over medical marijuana in United States V. McIntosh. Golden Gate University Law Review, 47(1), 89-96. Retrieved from d6ed-45e8-a8b3-86028e22965c%40sessionmgr4007 Ananth, P., Ma, C., Al-Sayegh, H., Kroon, L., Klein, V., Wharton, C., ... Wolfe, J. (2018). Provider perspectives on use of medical marijuana in children with cancer. Pediatrics, 141(1), e:2017-0559. doi:10.1542/ peds.2017-0559 Barker, J. (2018). Clinical challenges in the growing medical mari- juana field. Rhode Island Medical Journal, 101(2), 12-13. Retrieved from ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=b7952281-67a3-4a51-8231- c3466652db89%40sessionmgr4006 Belendiuk, K. A., Baldini, L. L., & Bonn-Miller, M. O. (2015). Narrative review of the safety and efficacy of marijuana for the treatment of com- monly approved medical and psychiatric disorders. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 10(10), 1-10. doi:10.1186/s13722-015-0032-7 Bresswein, K. (2017, November 29). Can medical marijuana users have firearms? Police say no. Lehigh Valley Live. Retrieved from http://www. ers_ha.html Dvorak, R. D., Raeder, C. A., Kramer, M. P., Sargent, E., Stevenson, B. L., & Helmy, M. (2018). Using deviance regulation theory to target mari- juana use intentions among college students. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 26(1), 29-35. doi:10.1037/pha0000159 Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (n.d.). Drug scheduling. Re- trieved from Drug Policy - Marijuana Justice Act of 2017 – Senator Cory Booker introduces Act to repair the harms exacted by marijuana prohibition. Marijuana Justice Act of 2017, S. 1689, 115th Cong. (2018). Harvard Law Review, 131(3), 926-933. Retrieved from wp-content/uploads/2018/01/926-933_Online.pdf Fischbach, P. (2017). The role of illicit drug use in sudden death in the young. Cardiology In The Young, 27(S1), S75-S79. doi:10.1017/ S1047951116002274 Greenberg, J. (2017). Florida’s medical marijuana industry remains hazy. Florida Bar Journal, 91(9), 18-23. Retrieved from https://www.floridabar. org/news/tfb-journal/?durl=%2Fdivcom%2Fjn%2Fjnjournal01.nsf% 2F8c9f13012b96736985256aa900624829%2Ff239e151ac5565aa85258 1c500601464 Greydanus, D. E., & Merrick, J. (2016). Cannabis or marijuana: A review. Journal of Pain Management, 9(4), 347-373. Retrieved from https:// Hawke, W., McKeon, K., & Sniscak, T. (2018, September 21). Wolf Administration certifies eight medical schools as medical marijuana aca- demic clinical research centers. Cannabis Law PA. Retrieved from http:// Heard, K., Marlin, M. B., Nappe, T., & Hoyte, C. O. (2017). Common marijuana-related cases in the emergency department. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 74(22), 1904-1908. doi:10.2146/ajhp160715 Hearing, G. A., & Bowles, M. A. (2017). Medical marijuana’s effect on employment law: The smoke is clearing. Florida Bar Journal, 91(10), 30-34. Retrieved from b1b8-219805b9d6d9@sessionmgr103 Hill, K. P. (2015). Medical marijuana for treatment of chronic pain and other medical and psychiatric problems: A clinical review. JAMA, 313(24), 2474-2483. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.6199 Issue 74, 1 2019 Pennsylvania Nurse 9