Peace & Stability Journal Volume 7, Issue 1 - Page 25

In September of 1943, General Pietro Badoglio of Italy offered a conditional surrender to the Allies, and this marked the be- ginning of the post-conflict stabilization phase as allied troops began to commence stabilization activities when not in combat with German forces in German-occupied areas of the country. 33 The last US occupation forces departed Italy in 1947. 34 Nicaragua: 1926 – 1934. In 1926, US forces returned to Nicaragua to quell rebellions that had risen following US withdrawal in 1925. This marked the beginning of the conflict phase. Augusto Cesar Sandino then waged a guerilla war against US forces in Nicaragua until 1934, when the US withdrew after over 500 skirmishes with Sandino’s forces. 35 This marked the end of US military involvement in the country. Russia: 1918-1920. In July 1918, US forces were authorized to deploy to Siberia and Northern Russia under the command of General Graves. This deployment was undertaken with the stated goal of enforcing neutrality in the struggle between Red and White forces by protecting the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Because there was no sustained combat that US troops par- ticipated in, this intervention is categorized as a non-conflict intervention. US Forces were recalled in 1920, marking the end of the non-conflict phase. 36 non-conflict stabilization phase. In 1902, the Dowager Empress returned to re-administer Peking, marking the end of intense US involvement in stabilization operations. 39 The Philippines: 1898 – 1935. A state of war was declared to exist between Spain and the United States on 21 April 1898. This marked the beginning of the conflict phase. On 1 May, Admiral Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. 40 Despite America gaining control of the Philippines from Spain in the Treaty of Paris, indigenous Philippinos led by Emilio Aguinaldo rose up in revolt in February of 1899 against their new colonial master. This war continued until July of 1902, when President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed general amnes- ty and declared that the conflict was over. In July of 1902, the United States began to administer the Philippines under a mil- itary government, marking the beginning of the post-conflict stabilization phase. In 1935, the US government made good on the Jones Act and allowed the Philippines to become an auton- omous commonwealth with self-rule. 41 Cuba: 1898 – 1901. In April of 1898, President McKinley ended his resistance to declaring war and asked Congress for au- thorization to deploy troops to Cuba to end the civil war there. This marked the beginning of the conflict phase. A blockade was enacted and troop mobilization began. United States troops Cuba: 1917 – 1923. In 1917, revolutionary fervor in Cuba officially landed in Cuba in June of 1898. Hostilities ended with threatened US investment in Cuban sugar plantations and the signing of the Protocol of Peace between the United States industry. In response, US marines were dispatched to Cuba to and Spain in August of 1898. The post-conflict stabilization protect American business interests, marking the beginning of phase began with the imposition of a military government run the non-conflict stabilization phase. In December 1923, US ma- by US forces in August of 1898. Major General Leonard Wood rines withdrew from Cuba after six years of putting down strikes served as military governor of Cuba until political power was and stabilizing the nation. 37 returned to Cuban nationals in 1902. 42 Haiti: 1915 – 1919. In July 1915, 330 United States marines landed in Port Au Prince and took control of the Haitian capital to prevent the nation from descending into anarchy. This marked the beginning of the non-conflict phase. In Au- gust 1919, peasants rebelled against the abuses of the Ameri- can-backed Gendarmerie security apparatus. US troops partici- pated in putting down the revolt, marking the beginning of the conflict phase of this operation. The revolt was finally quelled in 1921, and US forces moved back into a post-conflict stabiliza- tion role. In 1934, US forces withdrew from Haiti while retain- ing economic connections under President Franklin Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy. 38 China: 1900 – 1902. In 1900 the “Boxers” burned several rail- road stations near Peking to protest foreign influence in China, and the empress requested assistance. US Marines landed in China on 31 May 1900, resulting in the establishment of a mil- itary government in Peking. This marked the beginning of the About the Author: Charles R. Budris is a senior at George- town University majoring in Government with a concen- tration in International Re- lations. Charles has research interests in International Security and Peacekeeping Operations, having just com- pleted a paper on the efficacy of traditional peacekeeping, peace enforcement and counter- insurgency operations in dealing with transnational criminal organizations. Charles spent a summer abroad in Paris, France as part of the International Seminar Series Immersion Program and enjoys reading about military history. 23