Peace & Stability Journal Volume 7, Issue 1 - Page 24

Grenada: 1983. In October 1983, US special operations forces entered Grenada and commenced kinetic operations. Additional US forces deployed to the island later in the year. In December of 1983, MG Jack Farris disestablished his command and transferred control of the military forces to the Caribbean Peacekeeping Force (CPF). With the departure of US forces, there were no further kinetic operations involving the US, con- cluding the conflict phase. 20 Beirut: 1982 – 1984. In August 1982, the Lebanese govern- ment requested the deployment of US forces to assist in the evacuation of the Palestinian Liberation Organization and to help end factional fighting. This marked the beginning of a non-conflict phase. US forces withdrew in February 1984. 21 Sinai: 1982 – Present (2016). In March of 1982, 670 officers and men of the United States 1st Battalion 505th Airborne Infantry Regiment landed in Sinai as part of the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO). This force was authorized under Annex I of the 1979 Treaty of Peace between Egypt and Isra- el, as it was deployed in lieu of the UN force called for in this treaty. This marked the beginning of the non-conflict phase. The MFO is still deployed in Sinai, and the US supplies a large contingent of troops to the mission and continues to expand its commitment. There was never any significant combat, so this has been exclusively a non-conflict operation. 22 El Salvador: 1980 – 1992. In late 1980, President Carter authorized American assistance to the government of El Salva- dor to forestall a communist rebel takeover of the country. US Forces acted as military advisors and focused on governmental reform, but did not assist directly in combat. In light of this, this has been considered a non-conflict operation. The US ended di- rect involvement in El Salvador after the government negotiated an end to the insurgency in 1992. 23 Vietnam: 1964 – 1975. In August 1964, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution accused North Vietnam of “open aggression” on the high seas and authorized the United States to take “all measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression.” This marked the official US entrance into declared combat operations in the war and therefore the beginning of the conflict phase. 24 In March of 1973, two months after the signing of the Paris Peace Agree- ment, the last US combat troops departed South Vietnam. This marked the end of America’s declared conflict phase in Viet- nam. Although roughly 7,000 Department of Defense civilian employees remained in Vietnam and continued to assist South Vietnamese forces in combating the forces of the North, March of 1973 is considered to be the beginning of the post-con- flict stabilization phase. 25 By April 1975, the last Americans 22 in South Vietnam were airlifted out of the country as Saigon fell to the communist forces of the North, marking the end of post-conflict stabilization efforts. 26 Taiwan: 1950 – 1953. In June 1950, President Truman dis- patched the 7th fleet to the straits of Taiwan to ensure the neu- trality of Formosa and prevent aggression by either the People’s Republic of China (PRC) or the Republic of China (ROC). This marked the beginning of the non-conflict phase of US involvement. The “neutralization” order underpinning the 7th fleet’s presence in Taiwan expired in February 1953, bringing an end to US involvement in this operation. 27 Korea: 1950 – Present (2016). On 7 July 1950 the United Nations Security Council issues Resolution 84, which called on the international community to furnish assistance to South Korea to aid in the repelling of a North Korean invasion. This force was to be under the command of the United States and so marked the beginning of the conflict phase. 28 On 27 July 1953 an armistice was declared between the UN, North Korea and China. 29 All forces soon withdrew to the cease-fire line, and this marked the beginning of the post-conflict stabilization phase. US forces remain in South Korea to the present day, and maintain operational control of a large portion of South Korea’s forces. Japan: 1941 – 1952. In December of 1941, Japan attacked the US fleet at Pearl Harbor and war was soon declared. This marked the beginning of the conflict phase, which ended with Japan’s official surrender aboard the Battleship Missouri in September of 1945. This marked the beginning of post-conflict хѥɅѥ̰́ULɽ́)%Ȱ)ѡЁ她ɥх䁙ɍ́ѕ))́ͥєѡ́Ց䁕፱Ց́ULɍ́ɵѱ䁉͕))ɽѡѥ)ɵăLԸɵ䁑ɕ݅ȁѡUѕ)Mхѕ́Ȁİɭѡѡ)͔ɵͥչѥɕȁЁ)Յѕ́ḬɅ5䁽԰ɭѡ)ѡЁ͔Qȁ٥ѽɥ́ݕ́ѡ٥)ɵ䁥Ѽȁ齹́ѼՔ䁽)хɥѥ饙ѥɅѥɅѤ)ѥāQ́ɭѡѡеЁх)ѥ͔%5䁽԰ѡ́Ցѡȁх)ѥ]Ёɵ䁅ɕ镐]Ёɵ)́ȁѡݕѕɸЁѡM٥ЁU)Q́ɭѡѡеЁхѥ͔)%хăLܸ%х䁑ɕ݅ȁѡUѕMхѕ́)ȁİɭѡѡЁ͔