Peace & Stability Journal Volume 7, Issue 1 - Page 20

U.N., the resolution of Cyprus’s age-old tensions would provoke reflection about the significant changes to peace operations in recent decades, as well as underscoring the value of strategic patience in world affairs. Within that context, even a nation as mighty as the United States can learn valuable lessons from Cyprus’s long and complicated road to peace – a peace that remains elusive almost half a century after the threat of war first drew the world to its doorstep. Notes: Klaus Dodds, “Geopolitical Hotspot: Cyprus,” Geographical (August 2015), available at http://geographical.co.uk/geopoli- tics/hotspot/item/1202-hotspot-cyprus, accessed May 28, 2016 2 Robert A. Rubenstein, Peacekeeping Under Fire: Culture and Intervention (Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2008), 19. 3 “You Say Raki, I say Ouzo: Reunifying Cyprus,” Economist (April 23, 2016), available at http://www.economist.com/ news/europe/21697230-greek-and-turkish-cypriots-close-deal- may-yet-call-whole-thing-you-say-raki-i-say, accessed May 28, 2016. 4 Petros Papapolyviou and Giorgos Kentas, “Nicosia: a divid- ed capital in Europe,” Eurolimes 19 (2015): 20. Available at http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-46533-8, accessed May 27, 2016. 5 Ibid., 22-23. 6 Ibid., 21. 7 Ibid., 21. 8 Olga Campbell-Thomson, “Pride and Prejudice: The Failure of U.N. Peace Brokering Efforts in Cyprus,” Perceptions 19, no. 2 (Summer 2014): 59-60. In effect, the “bi-communal” consti- tution distributed political offices and municipal governments among the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities while enshrining their mutual right to exist and claim common citizenship and political rights. Turkish Cypriots resisted efforts to classify their community as a minority, while Greek Cypri- ots only grudgingly accepted a number of checks and balances that provided constitution protections and political powers for Turkish Cypriots. This brittle set of “least-bad” compromises recalls efforts in other multi-ethnic countries, such as Lebanon, Iraq, and Rwanda, to use constitutional tinkering to balance competing interests in post-colonial settings. 9 Papapolyviou and Kentas, 24-25. 10 Dodds, http://geographical.co.uk/geopolitics/hotspot/ item/1202-hotspot-cyprus. 11 The United Nations Department for Peacekeeping Opera- tions, United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Principles and Guidelines (New York: The United Nations, 2008), 13. 12 United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) Home Page, http://unficyp.unmissions.org, accessed May 27, 2016. 1 18 Ibid. Although not technically peace enforcement, UNFI- CYP’s tactical responses to the events of 1974 foreshadowed elements of the protection-of-civilians mandates of future U.N. peace operations. 14 Ibid. 15 Campbell-Thomson, 63. 16 Rubenstein, 32. 17 Since 2004, the UNFICYP force size has been capped at 860 peacekeepers, out of a total of 1,100 total personnel. Its budget for the 2014-2015 financial year was just over $58 million, of which the Government of Cyprus pays one-third of the costs. UNFICYP Homepage, http://unficyp.unmissions.org. 18 Ibid. 19 “You Say Raki, I say Ouzo: Reunifying Cyprus,” Economist (April 23, 2016). 20 Costas Melakopides, “Cyprus, Small-Powerhood and the EU’s Principles and Values,” in Small States in Europe: Chal- lenges and Opportunities, ed. Robert Steinmetz and Anders Wivel (Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2010), 161-180. 21 “Why There are Fresh Hopes of a United Cyprus: The Economist Explains,” Economist (April 26, 2016), avail- able at http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-ex- plains/2016/04/economist-explains-17, accessed May 28, 2016. 22 Ibid. 23 World Economic Forum, “Davos 2016: Reuniting Cyprus,” YouTube video file. Available at https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=B7hg0Yls1No&feature=youtu.be, accessed May 28, 2016. This brief video features remarks from the current Special Advisor to the U.N. secretary-general, Hon. Espen Barth Eide of Norway, as well as Cyprus Republic President Nicos Anas- tasiades and Turkish Cypriot leader Derviç Eroglu. To clarify, Turkish Cypriots theoretically enjoy all the rights and privileges of EU membership, but the declaration of a “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,” recognized only by Turkey, complicate these claims. The reunification of Cyprus would thus provide substantial economic benefits to Turkish Cypriots – a powerful incentive in favor of normalization. 24 J. Boone Bartholomees, Jr., ed. “A Theory of Victory,” in Parameters (Summer 2008): 25, available at http://strategic- studiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/parameters/Articles/08sum- mer/ bartholo.htm, accessed May 31, 2016. 25 Robert Gates, Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense (Arlington, VA: The Pentagon, Janu- ary 2012). 26 Barack H. Obama, “United States Support to United Nations Peace Operations,” Presidential Policy Memo (Washington: The White House, September 28, 2015). 13