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U.S. Experience in Afghanistan. Retrieved from: https://www. sigar.mil/pdf/lessonslearned/SIGAR-16-58-LL.pdf 6 Ibid. 7 Transparency International. What Is Corruption? Retrieved Conclusion from: www.transparency.org/what-is-corruption. It is imperative for the U.S. to establish a clear definition of what 8 Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (September 2016). Corruption in Conflict: Lessons from the constitutes corruption, as well as a baseline method for both anti-corruption and counter-corruption practices. There should U.S. Experience in Afghanistan. Retrieved from: https://www. sigar.mil/pdf/lessonslearned/SIGAR-16-58-LL.pdf. be a well laid-out description of petty, systemic, and grand corruption, and what actions constitute each of them. However, 9 Ibid. 10 U.S. Embassy Kabul, “NSA Spanta,” Kabul 5184 cable, Octo- this is not to say these guidelines need to be very rigid. In fact, ber 2, 2010. they should be the opposite. These definitions, especially with regards to the impact of corruption, should be broad umbrellas 11 Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (September 2016). Corruption in Conflict: Lessons from the because the degrees of corruption that are acceptable in a soci- U.S. Experience in Afghanistan. Retrieved from: https://www. ety vary from culture to culture. In addition to defining cor- sigar.mil/pdf/lessonslearned/SIGAR-16-58-LL.pdf. ruption itself, as proposed above, there needs to be a concrete definition of both counter- and anti- corruption. Currently, the 12 U.S. Department of State. U.S. Anti-Corruption Efforts. Re- trieved from: https://www.state.gov/anticorruption/. two terms are used interchangeably, to the detriment of those 13 Petruzzi V., Amicucci M. (2015), ACT - A new game- involved in stopping the spread of corruption. based methodology for Anti-Corruption Training, Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, v.11, n.3, 59-71. ISSN: Courtney Wojcik, a senior at 1826-6223, e- ISSN:1971-8829. Dickinson College, is major- 14 Ibid. ing in International Studies - Globalization & Sustainabil- 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. ity, and minoring in Chinese 17 Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction and Economics. Courtney (September 2013). U.S. Anti-Corruption Efforts: A Strategic interned with PNC Financial Services over this past summer, Plan and Mechanisms to Track Progress Are Needed in Fighting Corruption in Afghanistan. Retrieved from: https://www.sigar. and will join the firm in their mil/pdf/alerts/SIGAR-SP-13-9.pdf. corporate and institutional 18 Ibid. banking division in Philadelphia. During the summer of 2015, Courtney attended the International Affairs Professional Track 19 Ibid. 20 Ibid. at the Washington Center, while also interning at the National 21 Ibid. Coalition for Homeless Veterans as a Policy and Communica- 22 Gilbert, Jo-Anne, and J. C. Sharman. "Turning a Blind Eye tions intern. She studied abroad at Peking University during the to Bribery: Explaining Failures to Comply with the Interna- Fall 2015 semester tional Anti-corruption Regime." Political Studies 64 (2014). doi:10.1111/1467-9248.12153. Notes: 23 Ibid. 24 1 Walton, Grant W. "The Limitations of Neoliberal Logic in Transparency International. What Is Corruption? Retrieved the Anti-corruption Industry: Lessons from Papua New Guin- from: www.transparency.org/what-is-corruption. 2 Joint and Coalition Operational Analysis (28 February 2014). ea." Crime Law Soc Change Crime, Law and Social Change 60, no. 2 (2013): 147-64. doi:10.1007/s10611-013-9450-1. Operationalizing Counter/Anti-Corruption Study. Retrieved 25 Ibid. from: https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=756004. 3 World Bank. Helping Countries Combat Corruption: The Role of the World Bank. Retrieved from: http://www1.world- bank.org/publicsector/anticorrupt/corruptn/corrptn.pdf. 4 Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics. Institutional Corruption. Retrieved from: http://wiki.lessig.org/InstitutionalCorruption. 5 Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (September 2016). Corruption in Conflict: Lessons from the a system where each can operate within the most transparency and accountability. 13