Orthopedics This Week | February 14, 2017 - Page 12

ORTHOPEDICS THIS WEEK VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 5 | FEBRUARY 14 , 2017 12 readily admitted to his “ self-reviewing ,” he also pointed out the obvious flaws in the computerized system . “ Of course , authors will ask for their friends ,” he said . According to Moon , it ’ s the jobs of editors to make sure reviewers aren ’ t from the same institutions as the author or , in some cases , obviously co-authors on the same paper .

Gray and Blurry Lines
From publishing giants like Elsevier , Taylor & Francis , Springer , SAGE and Wiley , and of course BioMed Central , it seems like no publisher is immune to the threat of the faked review . Elizabeth Moylan , senior editor at BioMed Central , says third-party agencies are able to offer extremely tempting “ services ” to authors . Not all faked reviews are as cut and dry as the Moon fiasco . By “ offering language-editing and submission assistance to authors ,” she says that
it ’ s “ unclear whether the authors of the manuscripts involved were aware that the agencies were proposing fabricated reviewers on their behalf or whether authors proposed fabricated names directly themselves .”
Some journals and countries are more prone to fake reviews than others according to a September 2016 research “ Characteristics of retractions related to faked peer reviews : An overview ” published in Postgrad Medical Journal . ( Let ’ s assume the peer reviews for this research were 100 percent ethical !). Researchers looked at 250 retracted papers published by six publishers in 48 journals . The five journals with the most retractions included the Journal of Vibration and Control ( 24.8 %), Molecular Biology Reports ( 11.6 %), Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology ( 8.0 %), Tumour Biology ( 6.8 %) and European Journal of Medical Research ( 6.4 %). The publishers included SAGE ( 31 %), Springer ( 26 %), BioMed Central ( 18 %), Elsevier ( 13 %), Informa ( 11 %) and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ( 1 %). A minority ( 4 %) of retracted papers were published in Science Citation Index ( SCI ) journals with an impact factor of > 5 .
Demands on Authors
The pressure on scientists and researchers to publish in peer-reviewed journals is intense . The National Institutes of Health covered a short and sweet piece from the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences in 2014 dubbed “ Publish or Perish ” by Seema Rawat and Sanjay Meena which highlights this intense pressure . ( The original quip was coined by President Coolidge in 1932 ). In some cases , publishing in peer reviewed journals is tied ( officially or not ) to tenure and job security . The researchers note , “ The increasing number of publication have
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