Oil & Gas Innovation OGI Winter 2018 Digital Version - Page 54

Introduction Oil and gas is a term that is widely used. However, even when split into up/mid/ and downstream the variation in process conditions and measurement needs is staggering. From a metering point of view, this is one explanation of why measuring equipment in one-place functions perfectly, but it under-performs in others places. Another lesser known factor is that not everybody approaches the measurement challenge in the same way. Focusing on flow, (amounts of oil and gas passing through a pipe) the basic question to ask first is “what do we need to know”? In natural gas for instance, one sometimes needs to know the actual volumetric flow-rate and/or the standardised volume, or even the amount of energy contained in that gas. Just sticking any type of flow meter somewhere in a line is not likely to provide adequate results. Even in the case where only actual flow-rate (flow at line pressure) needs to be determined, care needs to be taken where and how to fit a flow meter. Moreover, flow meters rarely stand alone. Only together with other pieces of installation and instrumentation will they perform their desired function, making it into a measuring system, rather than just a meter. The challenges do not stop there. Having a properly designed measuring system on day one is no guarantee that it will per ܛHZ]XH[[H[و[YK[]\KXZ[[[H[XH[YX][ۈ[YXYX\\[Y[\ܛX[H T L LݚY\ZY[HۂXY]H] Y܋\\HYX\\[Y[\ܛX[Hݙ\HY][YHوHYX\\[œ\[K]\[K]۝Z[X[ۜۈBYX\\[Y[\[H][][ۈ\H[XZ[[[K\[\ܜXHXYBHYX\\[\[H ܈YX\\[Y[\]Z\Y[\]\[Y[H[\ KHYXHYX\\[Y[M'][HY\\قYX\\[Y[[\][ۂ^KۙHZY\[YB]\[YX\\[Y[\]Z\Y[[]B]Y[HYX[ B^H[و\[\˂[ܝ[][K\\\[BH\K'B\ܛX[K[[]\KH\X[ۈX[]Hۘ\X[\K[\ܙ]H[[ۘ[\ܚ\[ۈHXYX][ۈ[T ”\[H[Yܘ]܈[ܚ] H\YH[][X[ۈX[]ܜX\B[XZ[[[HوYX\\[\[\ˈYۙH܈[[H\Y[\HX[X]BYX\\[Y[\]Z\Y[[ ܈[ܜXBܘ[H[X][ۈXܜ[[XۚXH\ܛX[H\Z[HHYXY X[]\H\X\H[YܜXK\\X[HH\][\B]H\][]Y][Y[Xܙ[H]PHY\\˂\H K]HYY•[]Y\[[[YX\\[™\]Z\Y[ \X[HH\\HT܂\[H[Yܘ]܈\۝XY[]\[[[HXYYY\[[Y[[Y]›و\ܛZ[H\X[\YX\\[Y[\ˈ܈X[T\[H܂\[H[Yܘ]܋H\\[]][BZYܝ\ ]XZ]\[ ^[]JBXYX][ۈ[ [H[ []\BYX\\[\[HXܙ[K[YBܛY[ۜ]\X[]ܞHHH^Hš]H[\[[H\YYY]H\[B\YY]]XYX][ۜˈ[\\\H[Z[\\YX][ۈX^HZHXHۈB[\H\\ˈ]\[[X][HH[\XY]H] Y܋\\HYX\\[Y[›ݙ\HY][YHوHYX\\[\]Z\Y[ H]܈Y[܈XX[X\ۜ˂܈Hۙ\[\\وZYYX\\[œ\[KHH\Y\[B\[x&\ܚY[[\ܛX[H]H[YBو]8'\8'HY T L LY[B۝Z[X[ۜۈ[ܙH\XZ[YY]XY][Z]XHYX\\[Y['HYYHY]\'H\[H\H[\XݙH]Y\[ۋ\]X[\]X^H[]\ \YH\\\H]Z\\Hق][[ۋHY]\\HYX[[[ [[[H]][HX[H[[]\[ܛX][ۋX[ܛX][ۂ[HYY[HۛHYYHXX[\]H]H\X[\[[[YK܂[H[YYۛ]XX\قHX[H[]\Y XZ]Yݙ\H \[[ܙ[ݙ\X\]H]\][ܛX][ۈO\HY[\XZ[[[B[X\ZYܝ\ ܈\]H[[B][ۈ[X[[ۙXZ[[[B[\[XXܜ[[ܙH[Y[Bۙ\YYˈ[\[XݙH]Y\[ۜ[XYH[[ۘ[XYX][ۈ]\[[8'HYYY]\وXZH'H[قXYX][ۋ[T \[H[Yܘ]܈]YX[B\YH\]H][ۋ[XYقݚY[H\Y\و][\ˈ[B[Y H[[ۘ[X\XY[˜[\YܙHH\[[YX\\[\[