The Caliphate struck back with the pogroms of May 1966, which led to the overthrow of the Ironsi military regime in the Caliphate counter-coup of July 1966. The Caliphate counter offensive continued with the pogroms that sought to drive from the North those fellow Nigerians that Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa had, in 1948, called “invaders” of the North. [see q15 below] The crisis of the pogroms led to Biafra’s secession in 1967; and that, in turn, triggered the Civil War to forcibly drag Biafrans back into the Caliphate colony that Nigeria had become. The Caliphate’s military conquest of Nigeria was completed in January 1970 with the defeat of Biafra. Nigeria: Sequence of Governments, 1957-2013, with the Caliphate/non-Caliphate character of each 180 16 January 1966 to 29 July 1966 Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, Head of the Federal Military Government 1 August 1966 to 29 July 1975 Yakubu Gowon, Head of the Federal Military Government 29 July 1975 to 13 February 1976 Murtala Mohammed, Head of the Federal Military Government 13 February 1976 to 1 October 1979 Olusegun Obasanjo, (a.k.a. obj), Head of the Federal Military Government 1 October 1979 to 31 December 1983 Shehu Shagari, President 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985 Muhammadu Buhari, Chairman of the Supreme Military Council 27 August 1985 to 26 August 1993 Ibrahim Babangida, (a.k.a. ibb) President of the Armed Forces Ruling Council 26 August 1993 to 17 November 1993 Ernest Shonekan, Interim Head of State 17 November 1993 to 8 June 1998 Sani Abacha, Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council 8 June 1998 to 29 May 1999 Abdulsalami Abubakar, Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council 29 May 1999 to 29 May 2007 Olusegun Obasanjo, President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua, President 9 February 2010 to Present By 1999, the Caliphate had evolved a peculiar federal system that they entrenched through the 1999 constitution, a system that allows them to dominate and exploit other Nigerians behind a façade of democracy. But while they were evolving that constitution (1966-1999), they resorted to all manner of makeshift measures to hang on to power, sometimes ruling through their members, and at other times through “willing tools” from the Northern minorities or loyal agents from the “conquered” South. [see the sequence of governments in the adjacent table] Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Prime Minister 29 May 2007 to 5 May 2010 Thereafter a period of unalloyed Caliphate colonialism began. The Caliphate ruled through civilian and military governments that were led sometimes by its own members and sometimes by trusted non-Caliphate agents. September1957 to 16 January 1966 Goodluck Jonathan, Acting President till 6 May 2011, and President since then.