NYU Black Renaissance Noire NYU Black Renaissance Noire Vol 17.2: Fall 2017 - Page 150

Read carefully, one discovers that the privileges in McIntosh’s invisible knapsack have been stacked by “invisible” people psychologically and morally disabled by racism’s uprooting, people whose ability to accurately interpret human behaviors and motives have likewise been impaired. Her composition of such a comprehensive listing of assumed privileges can only mean that McIntosh knows the stackers, has seen or has been one of them. If she had seriously analyzed the type of impairment their actions or attitudes reflect, privilege #15 — and perhaps the entire essay — would have been framed differently. Instead of simply asserting, “I do not have to educate my children to be aware of systemic racism for their own daily physical protection,” 4 McIntosh would have added, “But I do have to educate my children to be aware of the daily threat racism and White privilege pose to their psychological, intellectual, and moral health.” Two defects weaken McIntosh’s anti-racist methodology: first, not identifying the people responsible for the racial privileges she enumerates, and second, not analyzing the full range of psychological dispositions involved in its operation. These defects also appear in the structural racism model championed by legal scholar John A. Powell, former director of the Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity at Ohio State University. In “Structural Racism: Building upon the Insights of John Calmore,” Powell asserts that “Racism need not be either intentional or individualist. Institutional practices and cultural patterns can perpetuate racial inequity without relying on racist actors” (795). Contrasting institutional and structural racism, Powell notes: The institutional racism framework reflects a broader recognition of the forms through which racialized power is deployed, dispersed, and entrenched. However, while illustrating the ways in which racism is often non-individualist and non-intentionalist, this framework focuses too heavily on intra-institutional dynamics, and thus fails to account for the ways in which the joint operations of social institutions produce critical racialized outcomes. […] Stru \[X\HY›\][[ۈHB[K[KZ[]][ۘ[][[\Z[]][ۘ[\[[Y[[[\X[ۜˈ MKMMB\[[\X[ۘ[\X [8&\X\[X\H[[ݚY\HYX[وY[YZ[˜[[\[HX\\ق\[[[\H]ۜXܝ[]Y\܈܈YX[[Y\X[][]]H[Y\X[[\ۋU]H[][]Y\˂]\[[][[[\HYX[H][]YHوX\\][ۜH[H\[\X[Z[]ق'YXܜ'H[X]][H\ۂ\YX[YXو\[XXHX[ۙYYX[XHX\[X\B[[[ݙ\H\\HHۙBZHY[\H[ۈ]X\\[XZ[Z[HX\\][ۈ[۝[YHœXHX\]Y\]]B[[Y[وX\[X[Y[›܈][]][ۜYXB\[ۈ܈Z[]وH[HBH^H\Hݙ\Y\[\HܙYXKX[][[[BYH[\و\ۈ[[ܘ]X™ݙ\Y[\H[X]KۈBۙH[ HXX[][ۜوB^X]]H[[[ۜ]H]Y[[\]YH[]YX[][]]ܘ]X\[ۈ ܈\ۘ[]JB[[ܘ]XX\\[۝[YB\ܝ[[ܘ]XXX\›܈XY\܈XH[[ܘ]X›]Y\ˈۈH\[ X[[[HHY\[[Y\[H[\YZ[\][۸&\]\[B[[X]H]ۛH[X\\˜\Hݙ\YH[X[Y[˜[Z]YH[[ܘ]X\[ۈ[[[ܘ]X]Y\H\\Y H[YH\YHوX\K\X [\X]X[\Bܚ]\]YHوX\[X\H][^[Z[][ۈو[X[Y[š[Y[]۝[X[H[H[ܙYHY[[\B[[]X[[[Y]KH\Yܝ[\Z[HY\[^H[X[Z[[Y[HXXHوX\H[\H[Z\ܚX[[[\\X\]X][ۂوX\H]]Y܈YX[\\X[YZ]][Y[]Y X[[][x&\]HX[BY[ ]\]\X\]\œ\][ۈ\\HX\H[ []]XKXYHH[Xۜ[\BX\Y[\[\Z[ۙHZY^K8']X[XH\ۙK'B]\[\Y[[X\H[B\H\[HوY[YH]\˜ܙX]\]\[YۚYX[[\Y[Y[[K\X\YX][ۋ\ \™Y[][ۈ\ܝH[[\[[\H][ۚ[و]H8'ۛܜ'B[ۋU]H8'Xܜ8'H][Z\˂Xۙ ][][[[\H[\YX[H[X]]H8'ۛܜ'B[[]Z\\Z[[\وX\B\H[Y]\[ۈZ[وZ\ۈXX[ [[XX[ []X[ܛ܈X\][ۋ\ [[]\X]\BX\Hو[\][ۘ[[][ۜš[H XۚX[\H\HܛY\Bۚ^Y][ۜ\HY[Y\™Xܜ[HܛY\[\\X[\[XYHHۚX[[\\H\HY[Y\ۛܜ˂\ ]][܈[H\\Y\]H[HHXۛY[Z\ۈ\Y\[H[œ\Y\[]]X]X[XY[܂[ܘ[Z[\KY ]][[H]XKX\Y][YHH\ݙ\[^B\H[[\YHX\\ق[[[X\\وY[[]\XH[[\XH[ܜBY\\X[\X][ۜو[X[ܝ[Y˂^ ]Z[]X[H[\˜[\[H[X[[HقH[Y[[\[XX[][YK][ ]Z[[H[\]BYۚYX[H[[YHوH[[XX[ XX[ ]X[ \]X[ [X]\X[\\Y[\X[Y\Y[YX[[Y\X[\X[][]]H[Y\X[[\[\ۋB\\[\[Y][ۜ[\ܚY\˂[[KHY]وX\H\[B܈[X\[HH\[Hو]HXX[Y[YHZ[Y\]X][H[\\܈[]]H]K\X[]]B[Y\X[][YX[[Y\X[[\ۋU]H[][]Y\™܈HXܘ]]H\و[[œX\KHZ\ۘ\[ۈ]]B[H\H[]YX[H\YYHX\K]]\HX][K[X]HX\[Z]Y[[\X\][ۈYYYYX][B[\X\x&\\[˂YHX[8&\Y[H\XY\^K8']H][YN[X[B[\XHۘ\X'H NNJKݚY\™\\[Y[H^]Hق]H[x&\[[][]HX\x&\\[YXˈH\^H[][\Yܘ\[XX[ۙ\\8'H\]YYHX\BۛH[[]YX[XوYX[\[[\XH\[\ۙ\[™Z[[Hۈ^Hܛ\ 'HH][YB]\X[8&\][\[[X]H\8'[\XH\[K'B[\[]H[H8'Z[BYXو]H][YK8'HX[\[YHH[H[\H]ZYX\[HHX[H8'][Y\'BHY[YY\ˈ[X H\\^\˜HX[X\XوYX[ۈۋ[Xو[\\[H\Y[YX›و]H][YKX[\XB]Y\\ݙ\HHHXY\Y\[^H܈Y[YHH[X[Y[[\X]Y[H][Y\B[[Y\]\ˈ][HYۂ\H\ۜ]Z[[] \ ]Y[ ܈YX[\[X[܈HX[Hو]]Y\˜[X[ۜH\ܚX\ˈXۙ H\ۜ\[[܈\\B\ۜXH܈H][Y\B[\]K\Z[YܙY\Y[XX[H[[ܘ[JH\Y [[ۙH][[H^[\\ق]HXX[][YHX[[›]و\[\XHۘ\X\B[Έ8'H[[[ۙB[وH[YK]H[\\Y]H[HY܈\\Y8'B K HܙH\\X[]Y\]YBYH][H܈\›YX[\]HYK\X[›\]]H[][ۜ\8%]ۋU]H\X\[[]\[ۋ[[X]X\ܚX[ [\\]]\8%]HY\Y[[[ۜ›و\X[ۈ[[\Z\Y\X[]BYHYK\YHX\K]HY\[XY\HXY[X[KX[ B\Y ܙK\Y\]ܘXH\]]B[][ۜ\]]H\X\š]H[[Y\X[]H\\ܚ[YH[]KYXK[HBYH\[[H\\[œ\ܛX[Hو[[\HX[Y\Y[X\HY\[\KY\]HXۛZXX[ [XX[[\Y\\Z[YB[][]Y\و܈[[[HHXۛ^H\HKX\HۛHYX\\Hو XۛZXB]\ˈH^[]\B\ۛHHX]H8%[[[]YX[^Y8%XۛZX܂]\]]\YX[][[]Z\[•]H][YH܈ ][ܙHYX[JBݙ\Z[X\H[ۛHHB\\Hو[܈XۛZXœ][\KۙHو[\\\][ۂ܈[Z[\\ۈH\و]B[]YX[