NYU Black Renaissance Noire Fall 2013 - Page 182

Endnotes Robeson’s biographer Martin B. Duberman considers the depressive state to have been favored by the constant harassment he was subjected to for many for years, aggravated by his disillusion and loss of confidence in the future which cannot be limited to specific disillusion concerning Soviet politics. 55 The fact is that from the 1960s onwards the world moved on without Paul Robeson both in Africa and in the United States. According to his friend Sam Parks in whom he once confided in Chicago: “His moorings had slipped—abroad he now felt himself a stranger in unfamiliar territory, at home he felt himself bypassed by a civil-rights movement he had done so much to forge.” 56 His psychotherapist, Ari Kiev, had also remarked how much he suffered from a feeling of lack of recognition from a new generation of black activists. 57 His interior exile and long trips to Europe had removed him from the struggle and he was, or felt he was, somewhat forgotten. Yet, he had not been forgotten by everyone. At the beginning of 1965, Malcolm X, who one year earlier had paid homage to his bravery, had expressed a desire to meet Robeson. 58 The meeting between the two men never took place. One month later, on 21 February 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated. 2 The ?rst wave of the Red Scare had targeted socialists, communists and anarchists be-tween 1917 and 1920. 3 The assassination was disguised as a car accident in Minsk in July. 4 He was executed in August 1952. 5 Martin Bauml Duberman, Paul Robeson. A Biography, New York, Knopf, 1988, p. 353. 6 Sheila Tully Boyle, Andrew Bunny, Paul Robeson: the Years of Promise and Achievement, Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press, 2001, p. 55. 7 Ibid., p. 55. 8 Emma Goldman, My Disillusionment with Russia, New York, Doubleday, 1923. 9 See Sheila Tully Boyle and Andrew Bunie, Paul Robeson: the Years of Promise and Achieve-ment, p. 305. 10 Kate A. Baldwin, Beyond the Color Line and the Iron Curtain. Reading Encounters between Black and Red, 1922-1963, Durham, Duke University Press, 2002, p. 209-210. 11 See Joy Gleason Carew, Blacks, Reds and Russians. Sojourners in Search of Soviet Promise, Rutgers University Press, 20008, Chap. 8. 12 Martin B. Duberman, Paul Robeson, p. 190. 13 Martin B. Duberman, Paul Robeson, p. 187. 14 William L. Patterson (1891-1980), member of the NAACP, and then of American Commu-nist Party, educated in Moscow at the Communist University of the Toilers of the East (KUTV), opened a law ?rm in Harlem and pleaded a large number of cases, including that of Sacco and Vanzetti. Quoted by Martin B. Duberman, Paul Robeson, p. 190. 16 A militant of the American Communist Party, Burroughs had been sent as a delegate to the Sixth Congress of the Communist International in 1928 and had sent her two sons to school in Moscow. 17 180 His great grand-father, Abram Petrovich Gannibal, taken as a child by slave traders, was bought for the Tsar who made him his godson and looked after his upbringing. After joining the army Gannibal rose to the rank of general and was made a nobleman. 15 BRN-FALL-2013.indb 180 1 Kate A. Baldwin, Beyond the Color Line and the Iron Curtain: reading Encounters Between Black and Red, 1922-1963, Durham, Duke University Press, 2002, p. 154-155. 9/13/13 12:48 AM