National Paranormal Society NPS FOCUS June 2016 - Page 28

The president of the ISC was Bernard Heuvelmans (1916-2001). He was born in Le Harve, France and became interested in unknown animals as a young child after reading such science fiction books as Jules Verne's "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea" and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's "The Lost World." In 1948 his interest in the subject was renewed after reading a Saturday Evening Post article by biologist Ivan T. Sanderson entitled “There Could Be Dinosaurs.” After reading the article Heuvelmans began amassing material on undiscovered animals. Five years later he felt he had enough information to write a large book on the subject. The book, "Sur la piste des betes ignores," was published in 1955. Three years later in 1958 it was reprinted in English under the title, "On the Track of Unknown Animals," and is still in print today. Due to Heuvelman's research being based on rigorous dedication to the scientific method and his solid background in zoology, the book was well received and respected throughout the scientific community. After the warm reception of his book, Heuvelmans coined the term "Cryptozoology" while corresponding with fellow scientists. By the 1960's the term was widely used in the field in honor of Heuvelmans and he was labeled the “Father of Cryptozoology.”

regarding Mokele-Mbembe, Bigfoot, Yeti and numerous other unknown animals. He continues to be a well-respected member of the cryptozoological community today and is well known for his analytic and practical intellect.

The final member of the board and driving force behind the formation of the ISC is J. Richard Greenwell. Greenwell was born in Surrey, UK in 1942. In 1982 at the suggestion of Jerome Clark, along with Roy Mackal, Greenwell set about forming the first formal scientific organization for the study of unknown animals, the International Society of Cryptozoology (ISC). He served as secretary for the life of the organization. As part of his duties with the ISC Greenwell edited the Journal and Newsletter of the ISC as well as traveled to many countries to investigate unknown animals such as the Ri of Papua New Guinea, the Onza in Mexico and the Yeren in China. In his lifetime Greenwell published over 100 scholarly and popular articles on the subject of Cryptozoology. Although he traveled to over 30 countries during his career, Greenwell was part of numerous expeditions right here in the United States, mostly with the goal of gathering information on Bigfoot. He continued these expeditions right up until two months before his death due to cancer in November 2005.

The vice president of the ISC was another noted Cryptozoologist, Roy Mackal. Roy Mackal was born in 1925 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Mackal received his B.S in 1949 and PhD in 1953 from the University of Chicago where he contributed to the university's virus project studying bacteriophages and the lysogenic cycle during the 1950's, 60's and 70's. He then continued on with the university as a professor and instructor in zoology until his retirement in 1990. Mackal is best remembered in the cryptozoological world for his research of the Loch Ness Monster. In 1965 on a trip to the Scottish Highlands, Mackal met with members of the Loch Ness Investigation Bureau. He immediately took an interest in their work and became the Scientific Director of the Bureau. Mackal held the position until 1975 during which time the group conducted sonar probes of the water near Urquhart Bay and installed underwater strobe cameras. Although they did acquire some interesting sonar hits and a photograph that appears to be a fin, there

was no compelling, definitive evidence to prove the animal’s existence. Although Mackal was convinced at first that there was a large group of unknown amphibians living in Loch Ness, he later revised that opinion and now believes that it may be a group of zeuglodons, a large, serpent like whale believed to have gone extinct millions of years ago. Mackal has also been involved in research

Three Influential Men in the Field