Professional Development to Practice Step1: Learning Intentions What should students know, do, and understand as a result of teaching? Chappuis, J. 2009. Seven strategies of assessment for learning. Hattie, J. 2009. Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Stiggins, R., J. Arter, J. Chappuis, & S. Chappuis. 2006. Classroom assessment for student learning.