Military Review English Edition September-October 2014 - Page 44

4. Neil Carey, David Reese, and Robert Shuford, “Navy SelfPaced Computer-Based Courses: Practical Implications of Saving Time Under Instruction,” Military Psychology, 22(4)(October 2010): 474-89. A study of Navy self-paced computer-based courses showed reduced instructional time. 5. B. Charles Tatum and Julia C. Lenel, “A Comparison of SelfPaced and Lecture/Discussion Methods in an Accelerated Learning Format,” Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching, 5(1)(March 2012): 139-156. College students in self-paced classes tended to value instruction more than students in lecture-discussion classes. 6. Martin E. Smith, “Self-Paced or Leader Led Instruction?” Training & Development Journal, 34(2)(February 1980), 14-18. 7. Learning occurs as students engage in problem solving and social negotiation within a real world context. 8. Manuel London and M.J. Hall, “Unlocking the Value of Web 2.0 Technologies for Training and Development: The Shift from Instructor-Controlled, Adaptive Learning to Learner-Driven, Generative Learning,” Human Resource Management, 50(6) (November-December 2011): 757-775. The authors suggest that within constructivist environments learners construe meaning based on peer collaboration, learner–learner discussions, and group assignments. 9. U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command Pamphlet 5258-2, The U.S. Army Learning Concept for 2015 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office [GPO], 6 June 2011), http://www. 10. Committee on Academic Programs and Teaching (CAPT) Learner-Centric Task Force 2005-2006, “Learner-Centered Teaching and Education at USC: A Resource for Faculty,” University of Southern California website, 11. Raymond A. Kimball and Joseph M. Byerly, “To Make Army PME Distance Learning Work, Make It Social,” Military Review, 93(3) (May-June 2013): 30-38. This article looked at the need to incorporate aspects of social learning into PME. The Army’s distance learning courses are often focused on more on content delivery than on true learning experiences. 12. Tzu-Chi Yang, Gwo-Jen Hwang, and Jen-Hwa Yang, “Development of an Adaptive Learning System with Multiple Perspectives based on Students’ Learning Styles,” Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 16(4)(2013): 185-200. 13. Georgios Tsoulouhas, Dimitrios Georgiou, and Alexandros Karakos, “Adaptive Content Presentation in Asynchronous Learning Environments,” International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 7(2)(2012): 43-49. 14. Richard E. Clark and David F. Feldon, “Ten Common But Questionable Principles of Multimedia Learning,” The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (New York: Cambridge 42 University Press, 2005), 151-173. Authors cite an expertise reversal effect—an extra cognitive load that interferes with learning. 15. Jessica A. Hockett and Kristina J. Doubet, “Turning on the Lights: What Pre-Assessments Can Do,” Educational Leadership, 71(4) (December 2013/January 2014): 50. Pre-assessment strategies can serve as a means to support some differentiation of instruction for a wide variety of student needs in increasingly diverse classrooms. 16. A flipped classroom is a technique where traditional classroom instruction and homework are flipped, or reversed. Students view lectures on their own time and conduct practical exercises during class, allowing for more interaction between the students and teacher, and each other, during hands-on learning. 17. In adaptive educational hypermedia systems we expect that the learning content presentation should be appropriately retrieved from learning object repositories and dynamically tailored to each learner’s needs. 18. Candace Thille and Joel Smith, “Cold Rolled Steel and Knowledge: What Can Higher Education Learn About Productivity?” Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning (March/April 2011). Dashboards may provide additional detailed information, such as the class’s learning of sub-objectives, the learning of individual students, and the types of tasks students struggle with the most. 19. Simon Buckingham Shum and Rebecca Ferguson, “Social Learning Analytics,” Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 15(3)( July 2012): 3-26. Most major LMSs now include at least rudimentary analytics dashboards. 20. Laurie P. Dringus, “Learning Analytics Considered Harmful,” Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16(3)( June 2012): 87100. Visualization and log data capabilities are limited in many of today’s LMSs. SNAPP supports Blackboard, WebCT and Moodle and is compatible with Internet Explorer, Firefox and Safari on Windows and Macintosh platforms. 21. Stephanie J. Jones, “Technology Review: The Possibilities of Learning Analytics to Improve Learner-Centered Decision-Making,” Community College Enterprise, 18(1)(Spring 2012): 89-92. As more organizations engage in research on the use of learning analytics, it will be possible to use this type of information to make improved learner-centered decisions. 22. Susan G. Straus, Michael G. Shanely, Maria C. Lytell, James C. Crowley, Sarah H. Bana, Megan Clifford, and Kristin J. Leuschner, Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills for Army Leaders Using Blended-Learning Methods (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2012). 23. Jackie Dobrovolny, “How Adults Learn from Self‐Paced, Technology‐Based Corporate Training: New Focus for Lea &