Military Review English Edition March-April 2016 - Page 92

include adding “Takes prudent risk,” and modifying “Gets results” to “Encourages disciplined initiative (through delegation and empowerment) to achieve results.” Those changes align the leadership principles of mission command with the leadership requirements model. Once aligned, these mutually supportive concepts can serve as guiding principles upon which Army leaders can rely. They can also serve as embedding mechanisms to foster cultural change. As discussed earlier, force-wide cultural adoption of a philosophy like mission command will take time. To accomplish the transition, it is important to assess the current situation to effectively evaluate what must happen next. ADRP 6-22, Army Leadership, asserts that culture consists of “shared beliefs, values, and assumptions about what is important.”23 Those beliefs, values, and assumptions permeate the Army and operate at different cultural levels, such as those proposed by Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner.24 Using their model, Angela R. Febbraro, Brian McKee, and Sharon L. Riedel describe how achieving lasting organization change requires altering organizations on at least two, and possibly all three cultural levels.25 The most superficial level incorporates “artifacts and practices” that represent an organization’s explicit culture, including processes, procedures, and other observable behavior.26 The middle layer incorporates “attitudes and expectations,” and according to Febbraro, McKee, and Riedel, it is “more conceptual than tangible, and consists of doctrine, customs, and traditional practices.”27 The innermost layer, “deep structure,” or “deep culture,” represents implicit culture, and it is “the source and structure from where attitudes and expectations are generated.”28 Applying ADRP 6-22’s definition of culture to Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s model shows that cultural change likely requires integration into all three layers of Army culture. Various Army organizational practices and policies support the surface cultural layer by promoting missio