Military Review English Edition March-April 2016 - Page 83

CYBERSECURITY other five tasks for stability operations identified in Army Doctrine Publication 3-07, Stability:63 Establish civil security Establish civil control Restore essential services Support to governance Support to economic and infrastructure development Secure cyberspace infrastructure In cyberspace doctrine, the Joint Staff notes the importance of integrating cyber efforts with other stakeholders. In its 2015 Cyber Strategy, the Department of Defense described “Building alliances, coalitions, and partnerships abroad” as a fundamental cybersecurity activity.64 In a June 2015 memorandum, Adm. Michael Rogers writes, “Cyberspace operations demand unprecedented degrees of joint, interagency, and coalition collaboration and information sharing, and thus we will remain trusted partners in collaborating with other agencies, with allies and friends abroad, with industry, and with academia.”65 The Joint Staff has identified profound obstacles to public-private cooperation on cybersecurity warning, • • • • • • Many NGOs are hesitant to become associated with military organizations in any form of formal relationship, especially in the case of conducting CO [cyberspace operations], because doing so could compromise their status as an independent entity, restrict their freedom of movement, and even place their members at risk in uncertain or hostile permissive environments.66 In building the ISAC/ISAO model, its architects have sought to surmount such distrust among government, industry, and NGOs. Though by no means a panacea, the ISAC/ISAO model offers the Army a framework for facilitating cooperation in future stability operations. This is both a current and a future operational imperative. As required, the Army must be ready to restore cybersecurity for the critical infrastructure in a host nation by coordinating efforts with intergovernmental organizations like ITU, private industry like GSMA members, and various governmental organizations. To facilitate necessary collaboration, the ISAC/ISAO model provides a starting point for future operations. Maj. Michael Kolton, U.S. Army, is a graduate student at Yale University’s Jackson Institute for Global Affairs. Kolton is a foreign area officer specializing in China. He previously served as an infantry officer with deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. He holds an MA in economics from the University of Hawaii at Manoa and a BA in economics from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. Notes 1. Peter W. Singer and Allan Friedman, Cybersecurity and Cyberwar: What Everyone Needs to Know (London: Oxford University Press, 2014), 13. 2. Joint Publication ( JP) 3-12(R) Cyberspace Operations (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office [GPO], 5 February 2013), v. 3. U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Pamphlet 525-3-1, The U.S. Army Operating Concept: Win in a Complex World, 2020-2040 (Fort Eustis, VA: TRADOC, 31 October 2014), 11. 4. Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Military Strategy of the United States 2015, June 2015, 7, accessed 11 December 2015, http:// www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Publications/2015_National_Military_Strategy.pdf. 5. Ibid., 4 and 11. 6. JP 3-12(R), Cyberspace Operations, v; Gregory Conti, John Nelson and David Raymond, “Towards a Cyber MILITARY REVIEW  March-April 2016 Common Operating Picture” (presented at 5th International Conference on Cyber Conflict, Tallinn, Estonia, 4–7 June 2013), vi. 7. JP 3-07, Stability Operations (Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 29 September 2011), vii. 8. JP 3-12 (R), Cyberspace Operations. 9. “Ebola in Sierra Leone: Which Doctor?” Economist (blog), 19 June 2014, accessed 14 December 2015, http://www.economist. com/blogs/baobab/2014/06/ebola-sierra-leone. 10. “Online Crisis Management: A Web of Support,” Economist (blog), 14 July 2011, accessed 14 December 2015, http://www.economist.com/blogs/babbage/2011/07/ online-crisis-management. 11. John Ribeiro, “Internet Becomes a Lifeline in Nepal after Earthquake,” Computer World, 25 April 2015, accessed 14 December 2015, http://www.computerworld.com/article/2914641/internet/internet-becomes-a-lifeline-in-nepal-after-earthquake.html. 81