Military Review English Edition March-April 2016 - Page 28

15. Quran 5:9, Muhammad Mahmud Ghali, trans., in Towards Understanding the Ever-Glorious Quran (Cairo: Dar An-Nashr Liljamiat, 2008). “Allah has promised the ones who have believed and done deeds of righteousness (that) they will have forgiveness and a magnificent reward.” All English citations to the Quran are from Ghali. 16. Quran, 2:25, 4:13, 10:9, 52:20, and 56:22; Hans-Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, s.v. “houri”: “virgin of paradise.” 17. Muhammed Ibn Ismaiel Al-Bukhari, The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari, trans. Muhammad Muhsin Khan (Riyadh: Darussalam, 1997), Vol. 4, Book 56, 63. 18. Quran, 32:5, 70:4, 55:43–44, and 99:1. 19. Sahih Muslim, Book 41, hadith 6924, accessed 22 January 2016, http://www.searchtruth.com/. “Abu Hurrairah reported Allah’s Messenger as saying: ‘The Last Hour would not come until the Romans would land at al-Amaq or in Dabiq.’” The majority of Dabiq citations normally are from Bukhari, whose hadith collection is considered to be one of the most reliable. Bukhari’s hadith collection, however, makes no mention of a place named Dabiq. 20. Quran 57:3. The final day is referred to as al youm al Akhir. 21. Nabia Abbott, Two Queens of Baghdad: Mother and Wife of Harun al-Rashid (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1946), vii, accessed 20 January 2016, http://oi.uchicago.edu/sites/oi.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/shared/docs/two_queens_baghdad.pdf. 22. Ibid., 162. 23. Sykes, The Caliphs’ Last Heritage, 221. 24. An unnamed critic of Mohammad, in Sayyid Qutb, In the Shade of the Qur’an (New Delhi: Islamic Book Service, 2001), 322. 25. Muir, The Life of Mohammad, 25. 26. Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (New York: Modern Library, 2003), 933–34. Other sources confirm four daughters, but accounts vary on the number of sons who died. 27. Muir, Life of Mohammad, 481. Mohammad and his companion, Bishr, were given meat from a woman in the Jewish village of Kheiber. While Mohammad did not swallow the meat, he said it tasted strange and asked the woman if she poisoned him. She said she did, for if he ate the meat and survived, she would know he was a prophet. Bishr died after eating the meat. See also Ibn Kathir, trans. Trevor Le Gassick, The Life of the Prophet Muhammad: Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, Vol. III, (Lebanon: Garnet, 2005), 286. On his deathbed, Mohammad mentioned the poisoned meat as the cause of his affliction. 28. Conversation between the author and a Muslim military officer attending a U.S. military school in 2012. He made the statement after I mentioned that the ninth sura was missing the bismillah. After checking his Quran, he said that he learned something about his religion. 29. “The Return of the Khilafah,” Dabiq 1, Ramadan 1435 [ July 2014], 11, accessed 3 January 2016, http://media.clarionproject. org/files/09-2014/isis-isil-islamic-state-magazine-Issue-1-the-return-of-khilafah.pdf. 30. El-Badawy, Comerford, and Welby, Inside the Jihadi Mind, 5. 31. Ibid. 32. Masood Farivar, Confessions of a Mullah Warrior (New York: Grove Press, 2009), 97. 33. Quran 2:1. 34. Quran 108. 35. Hassan Hassan, “Book Discussion on ISIS,” C-SPAN, 12 March 2015, accessed 19 January 2016, http://www.c-span.org/ video/?324789-1/hassan-hassan-isis-inside-army-terror. 26 36. William Muir, The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline, and Fall (Oxford: The Religious Tract Society, 1891), 60, accessed 28 January 2016, https://books.google.com/books?id=jQZBAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR3&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=2#v=onepage&q&f=false. “The persistent opposition of the Christian Bedouins now led Khalid into an unwise severity that embittered them against him. Their leader was beheaded in front of the city walls, and every adult male of the garrison led forth and put to death; while the women and children were made over to the soldiers or sold into slavery.” 37. Muir, The Life of Mohammad, 375. 38. Washington Irving, Lives of the Successors of Mahomet (Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1850), 147. 39. Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad, trans. A. Guillaume (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2011), 292. 40. Ibid., 514. 41. Lorenzo Vidino and Seamus Hughes, ISIS in America: From Retweets to Raqqa (Washington, DC: George Washington University, Program on Extremism, December 2015), 23, accessed 20 January 2016, https://cchs.gwu.edu/sites/cchs.gwu.edu/files/downloads/ISIS%20in%20America%20-%20Full%20Report.pdf. Vidino and Hughes also mention avatars of lions and green birds. 42. William McCants, “How ISIS Got Its Flag,” Atlantic online, 22 September 2015, accessed 20 January 2016, http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/09/ isis-flag-apocalypse/406498/. 43. Ibn Khaldun, The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, trans. Franz Rosenthal (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005), 169. 44. Mohammad-Mahmoud Ould Mohamedou, “The Islamic State’s First Year,” Al-Monitor online, 25 June 2015, accessed 20 January 2016, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse. 45. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, in his first and only public appearance and sermon in Arabic, translated into English, in Q&A with Jessica Stern, C-SPAN, 24 March 2015, accessed 20 January 2016, http://www.c-span.org/video/?324982-1/qa-jessica-stern. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi says, “A fter long years of jihad and perseverance fighting the enemies of Allah, Allah has enabled them to accomplish their goal. Thus, they hastened to declare the establishment of their Caliphate and the appointment of an imam. This is a duty incumbent among Muslims …. Muslims who ignore this duty are committing a sin.” 46. Quran 2:30 and 38:26. 47. Nabih Amin Faris, “Khalifa or Khaliqa,” The Moslem World, Khalifa or Khaliqa XXIV (2) (April 1934), 183. The only way to tell the difference between khalifa and khaliqa in Arabic is by the number of dots that appear over the characters equivalent to “f” and “q.” Since the Arabic alphabet lacks short vowels, diacritic markings were added later, as there was often confusion about the meaning of words. 48. Quran 38:26. 49. “The Return of the Khilafah,” Dabiq 1, Ramadan 1435 [ July 2014], 29, accessed 20 January 2016, http://media.clarionproject. org/files/09-2014/isis-isil-islamic-state-magazine-Issue-1-the-return-of-khilafah.pdf. Dabiq was silent regarding Quranic authority to support the creation of the caliphate or the Muslim duty to pledge allegiance to the caliph. Instead, Daesh relied on hadith. 50. “The Return of the Khilafah,” Dabiq 1, 29. 51. Statement by Daesh spokesman al Adnani, 22 September 2014, cited in El-Badawy, Comerford, and Welby, Inside the Jihadi Mind, 35. March-April 2016  MILITARY REVIEW