Military Review English Edition March-April 2016 - Page 27

DAESH Maj. Theresa Ford, U.S. Army, is a legal advisor with U.S. Special Operations Command, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. She holds a BA from Thomas Edison State College, an MA in international relations from St. Mary’s University, and a JD from the University of Maine. She studied Arabic in Egypt and conflict resolution in Israel as part of her graduate studies. She deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom and served as a member of the Afghanistan-Pakistan Hands Program in Operation Enduring Freedom. Notes Epigraph. Thomas Hegghammer, “The Soft Power of Militant Jihad,” New York Times online, 18 December 2015, accessed 19 January 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/20/opinion/ sunday/militant-jihads-softer-side.html?_r=0. Anashid is a plural form of nasheed, or “Islamic devotional music.” See also Souad Mekhennet, “German Officials Alarmed by Ex-Rapper’s New Message: Jihad,” New York Times online, 31 August 2011, accessed 19 January 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/01/world/europe/01jihadi.html. 1. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Marine Gen. Joseph F. Dunford Jr., testimony before the House Armed Services Committee, 1 December 2015, C-SPAN video recording, “Military Operations against ISIS,” accessed 19 January 2016, http://www.c-span.org/video/?401241-1/ashton-carter-joseph-dunford-testimony-military-operations-isis. Dunford identifies Daesh’s sources of power as “existence of the caliphate … their narrative … [and] manpower.” 2. Ashton Carter, “Statement on the U.S. Military Strategy in the Middle East and the Counter-ISIL Campaign before the Senate Armed Services Committee,” Secretary of Defense testimony, 27 October 2015, accessed 19 January 2016, http:// www.defense.gov/News/Speeches/Speech-View/Article/626037/ statement-on-the-us-military-strategy-in-the-middle-east-andthe-counter-isil-c; Barack Obama, National Security Strategy (Washington, DC, February 2015), 2, accessed 19 January 2016, https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/2015_national_security_strategy.pdf. 3. Associated Press, “Is it IS, ISIS, ISIL or maybe Daesh?”, Ynet News online, 12 September 2014, accessed 19 January 2016, http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4570385,00.html. 4. J. Milton Cowan, ed., Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (Urbana: Spoken Language Services, Inc.,1994), 325. Daesh is based on the Arabic acronym for Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, al-dowlat al-Islamiya al Iraq wa ash-shams. 5. “British House of Commons Debate on Combating ISIS in Syria,” C-SPAN, 2 December 2015, accessed 20 January 2016, http://www.c-span.org/video/?401458-1/ british-house-commons-authorizes-airstrikes-syria-397223. 6. The prophet Mohammad, quoted and translated in William Muir, The Life of Mohammad (Edinburgh: John Grant, 1923), 485, accessed 28 January 2016, https://ia802606.us.archive.org/4/items/ lifeofmohammadfr00muir/lifeofmohammadfr00muir.pdf. 7. Hans Wehr Dictionary, 85. The Arabic root letters b, k, and r relate to the subject of virginity, with bakara meaning virginity and MILITARY REVIEW  March-April 2016 bikr meaning virgin. The word bakr, however, means young camel; the words for virgin and young camel are spelled the same in Arabic. The only difference between the two is the unwritten short vowels, or diacritics, that were added long after Mohammad’s day. The name young camel was likely a nickname for Aishah, who was a virgin. 8. Ali Hashem, “The Many Names of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi,” Al-Monitor online, 23 March 2015, accessed 20 January 2016, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/03/isis-baghdadi-islamic-state-caliph-many-names-al-qaeda.html#. See also Vali Nasr, The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future (New York: W.W. Norton, 2007), 197. 9. Abu Omar, quoted in Hashem, “The Many Names of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.” See also Mark Sykes, The Caliphs’ Last Heritage: A Short History of the Turkish Empire (London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1915), 221, accessed 3 January 2016, http://babel.hathitrust. org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.$b57529;view=1up;seq=250. 10. William McCants, “The Believer: How an Introvert with a Passion for Religion and Soccer Became Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi Leader of the Islamic State,” The Brookings Essay online, 1 September 2015, accessed 20 January 2016, http://www.brookings.edu/ research/essays/2015/thebeliever. 11. From a hadith reported by Abu Dawud from Muawiyah, cited in Dabiq 9, Sha’Ban 1436 [May 2015], 53, accessed 21 January 2016, http://media.clarionproject.org/files/islamic-state/isis-isilislamic-state-magazine-issue%2B9-they-plot-and-allah-plots-sexslavery.pdf. Dabiq magazine uses the Islamic calendar. 12. Charlie Winter, The Virtual ‘Caliphate’: Understanding Islamic State’s Propaganda Strategy (London: Quilliam Foundation, July 2015), 30, accessed 20 January 2016, http://www. quilliamfoundation.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/publications/ free/the-virtual-caliphate-understanding-islamic-states-propaganda-strategy.pdf. “The emphasis on eschatology lends urgency to the IS narrative and incentivizes other jihadists— individuals or groups—to join the organization.