Military Review English Edition March-April 2016 - Page 136

find America and World War I (again, augmented with modern road maps) to be a superb guide. Curtis S. King, PhD, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas THE GREAT CALL-UP: The Guard, the Border, and the Mexican Revolution Charles H. Harris III and Louis R. Sadler, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 2015, 576 pages R emembrance of the federal mobilization of the National Guard for service along the Mexican border in 1916 has largely been conflated with the concurrent Punitive Expedition into Mexico, and overshadowed by the entrance of the United States into the Great War. Charles Harris and Louis Sadler aim to correct this oversight with their detailed study of the National Guard’s service on the border. The border crisis is often seen as a sideshow to the Punitive Expedition, even though around one hundred fifty thousand guardsmen served on the border, while around twelve thousand soldiers served in the Punitive Expedition. Therefore, Harris and Sadler question which was the main effort and which was the sideshow. They dismiss the common misperception that movement of National Guard units from every state to the border was an overreaction to a few bandit raids on Texas towns in the aftermath of the raid by Francisco “Pancho” Villa on Columbus, New Mexico. Instead, they argue that the government of Mexican President Venustiano Carranza was sponsoring raids along the border, and that it was involved in the Plan of San Diego, a proposed uprising of Hispanics within the Border States. They show that the threat of war was very real. In that light, the mobilization was part of a successful American effort to demonstrate the ability to mass large numbers of troops on the border to deter the Carranza government. Against that background, the volume tells the story of the mobilization of the Guard and its service along the border. The book is in two sections: the first section is an overview of the border crisis from early 1916 until the removal of most National Guard units by February 1917. The second section centers on the experience of National Guard units from specific states to specific sections of the border. Drawing mainly on newspaper 134 accounts, War Department records, and state records, the authors describe the process of mobilization and the service on the border, with chapters moving in geographical order from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean. The book’s organization is effective if encyclopedic, although tighter editing could have avoided some repetition. What emerges is the span of readiness of units, from barely functional to well organized and ready for service. The Army, however, tried to hold National Guard units to standards that Regular Army units could not meet, and it tended to denigrate the competency of the Guard formations in an attempt to force Congress to institute universal military training. While on the border, Guard units began ambitious programs that not only gave guardsmen toughening and training but also gave Regular Army officers experience handling larger formations. The border call-up provided important practical experience to regular officers who would soon be handling similarly sized formations in Europe. The presence of two guard divisions (New York and Pennsylvania), plus enough Guard and Regular units to make another seven provisional divisions, allowed regular officers to create corps and conduct large-scale training exercises. The Great Call-Up is a welcome addition to the historiography of the National Guard and the evolution of the U.S. Army. Harris and Sadler have caused us to look anew at the border crisis and the call-up. They have brought a long-needed recognition of the importance of the call-up to an understanding of the border and relations between the United States and Mexico during the second decade of the twentieth century, the evolution of the National Guard, and the preparation of the U.S. Army for entrance into the Great War. Barry M. Stentiford, PhD, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas THINKING BEYOND BOUNDARIES: Transnational Challenges to U.S. Foreign Policy Hugh Liebert, John Griswold, and Isaiah Wilson III, eds., Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2015, 256 pages T hinking Beyond Boundaries: Transnational Challenges to U.S. Foreign Policy is a compilation of eighteen papers into three March-April 2016  MILITARY REVIEW