Military Review English Edition March-April 2016 - Page 105

RESERVE COMPONENT that provide integrated learning with the aim to “provide tough, realistic multiechelon home-station training using a mix of live, virtual, and constructive methods that efficiently and effectively build soldier, leader, and unit competency over time, contributing to the effectiveness of the current and future forces.”15 The Army provides land forces for homeland defense and defense support of civil authorities (DSCA), a requirement that could also be better accomplished through integrated ATF training. The Army Capstone Concept states that the “ARNG plays a unique role in homeland defense and DSCA, whether under the mission command of a state governor or federalized in a Title 10 status under the mission command of the president, secretary of defense, and supported combatant commander.”16 DSCA support provides additional AC and RC integrated-training opportunities with civilian partners at the local, state, and federal levels. This training would enhance the capabilities of each component while demonstrating interagency unity of effort. Further integrated-training opportunities lie in converting RTCs to the same network caliber as the CTCs. The RTCs have sufficient maneuver space to support both AC and ARNG brigade combat team formations, which will allow RC sustainment, engineer, military police, and medical forces an increased scope for support that will deliver realistic training. This will also provide additional geographically dispersed training venues that may reduce transportation cost and time. An example of cost savings is the 10th Mountain Division conducting CTC-like training at the RTC at Fort Dix, New Jersey, rather than the national training center at Fort Irwin, California. The reduced transportation costs alone will provide significant savings. Each RTC has an equipment concentration point that can expand to include additional maneuver equipment that returns from Afghanistan, which will in turn provide a solution to the excess equipment issue the Army is facing as it departs theater. To manage these new opportunities will require fully integrated multiple-component headquarters. Create Additional Multicomponent Headquarters The Army must change the way it thinks about the roles of the RC by creating additional multicomponent headquarters. As the size of the AC force continues to decline, the RC can provide the additional personnel necessary to create more multicomponent headquarters, allowing for MILITARY REVIEW  March-April 2016 better utilization of the capabilities inherent to each component. The USAR and ARNG can staff vacant positions with RC Active Guard and Reserve (AGR) or mobilized personnel; this will not affect the USAR or ARNG end strength as the increase will come from accessions of current personnel. The Army Posture Statement details an increase in the AGR force in the following excerpt: Although we are making reductions in the overall end strength of the Army National Guard and the U.S. Army Reserve, we have continued to invest in higher full-time support levels, including Active Guard and Reserve, military technician, and civilians. This budget supports 82,720 full-time support positions in FY16 as compared to 68,000 in FY01. This level of full-time support constitutes a 20 percent increase since 2001.17 Future multicomponent headquarters will use the First Army force structure as the template. A current First Army unit, the 189th Infantry Brigade (Training Support) is a multicomponent unit stationed at JBLM. The unit is comprised of ten subordinate units including a headquarters and headquarters company and nine battalions, three of which are AC units. The subordinate units provide warfighting function capabilities in movement and maneuver, fires, and sustainment. The following approach to more comprehensive integration may provide additional solutions to mitigate the effects of future force reductions. An opportunity exists to replace the headquarters element of 2nd Battalion, 358th Armor Regiment (AC), a subordinate command of the 189th, with the 81st ABCT (ARNG) to integrate additional RC units under the brigade headquarters. This would allow AC soldiers the opportunity to fill positions within maneuver units throughout the AC force structure. This would also provide ARNG integration at the battalion level while maintaining current state and corps alignment. Assigning the 81st ABCT as a subordinate unit would provide a similar structure and full-time support while increasing capabilities to provide training and support to DSCA operations. RC soldier integration into key positions within the brigade headquarters also would act as an incentive for retention and growth, and it would provide stakeholders in the USAR and ARNG commands. Assigning AGR or mobilized RC soldiers to key staff positions would 103