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it is argued, the continent went through a wave of trying to liberate itself from the colonialists and gain political and to some extent, economic power. If you read ‘State of Africa’ by Martin Meredith, you get to see details of a 50-year journey through the continent – some of the details in the book cover this period that was characterized by a continent inspired by itself and rising against the colonial powers. Ghana set the pace with attaining independence in 1957 and inspired the rest of the continent – after that, there were several countries that became more aggressive in their pursuit of independence riding on the then Pan-African ideology pioneered by Kwame Nkrumah. The continent then went into a period of resetting its political structures – we know stories of self-entitled and brutal dictators that emerged in this period immediately after independence. To some extent, there was abit of political instability as the owners of enterprise (colonialists) packed 38 MAL25/18 ISSUE to leave – by then, we were heading into the famous cold war period – where states either leaned west or east. This period had its own economic impact on the continent that lingered on into the 1990s. In general, after independence in the 1960s and into 1990s, Africa was at crossroads! End of the cold war in the 1990’s then ushered in a new era of some semblance of structures in politics, most notably, the clamor for ‘western’ style democracy – in this, the population then got some power to question and demand for accountability from their governments. Regimes at that time then sort to ‘correct’ their policies to appeal to the people and hopefully be voted back in. In Kenya, we remember the clamor for multi-party democracy emerged around this period – with first multi-party election happening in 1992. From the 1990s to date, the political profile, though developed from what it was, is still very varied across the continent and we cannot universally say that there is ONE Africa as far as political maturity is concerned. Even though, on average, there are about 15 to 20 election programs in Africa every year, there are still places where armed conflicts still exist to date and are potentially no-go zones for businesses, local or foreign. Even with the electoral processes in place, lack of trust in the systems and hunger for power from the political elite has caused some level of political instability in several countries – we saw this in Ivory Coast earlier, DRC. In Kenya, we know election periods have been characterized by violence and disruption to businesses leading to economic slowdown in the period immediately after elections – we saw this more prominently in 2007/8 and again in 2017. In politics and more specifically during elections in any country, other countries do align themselves accordingly – of course depending on their interests. This happens in Africa too. In subtle ways, one would tell which regime is aligned to which.