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demonstrate that even a straight forward sponsorship deal can go bad in the implementation but ambush marketing cannot be frustrated in similar ways given that it is more of a ‘freelance’ attack than a direct approach. Half Of The Budget Spent In Adverting Is Wasted: But Th ere Is A Catch A ‘Visit Rwanda’ sponsorship to a major English Premier Soccer Team got into trouble as British citizens and concerned Netizens questioned the logic of a third world country sponsoring a team in the first world. The main concern was that the country receives aid from the first country almost equivalent to the sponsorship amount. Does this mean they don’t need the donor funding? The Rwandan officials had a difficult time justifying such a huge marketing spend in what those complaining thought as a luxury. That sponsorship was eventually suspended but my guess is that the national marketing officials failed to explain what one of the old saying in advertising states. The saying goes that, half of the budget allocated to advertising is wasted; the catch is that you can’t tell which half. Those complaining were focusing on the half that “goes” to waste; those who had made the commitment were focusing on the eyeballs that the sponsorship would have accessed the other half that can have disproportionate return on investment (ROI). Such an ROI means that you get several folds in return on your investment. An ambush marketing approach would not attract such a backlash as the details may not be available in advance nor would the spending be clear. The message will hit home before the critic would start calling. Still, Rwanda is a premium tourist destination with the gorillas viewing costing top dollars compared to some Africa’s low cost tourist destinations. A business model includes a business idea, the target segment and the value proposition. Therefore, the visit Rwanda marketers were willing to go an extra mile to demonstrate their eagerness to roll the red carpet for their top dollars tourists. In my understanding the sponsorship designers were spot-on on the primary target market but they failed to appreciate the secondary target which includes the donor country’s citizens. Such citizens viewed the sponsorship as an indication that their donor funding is not justifiable if the country can spend the equivalent amount in sponsoring a premier league club in a donor country. This shows there is great need for marketing education for the masses (including Kenya’s Shujaa Rugby team). As a sign of our commitment to this, let us start with social marketing 101 Lessons. Social Marketing 101: P’s Of Marketing - Purse Strings When marketing agenda is not entirely for profit, other P’s of marketing apply. One of such ‘P’ is what is referred to as Purse Strings. The donors and citizens of a donor country care so much about their interests that they can either make them open their purse strings wider or close them. Sometimes their interests would be in the value for money proposition or something else. When such interests are addressed the marketing campaign will work very well. It is therefore important to address key publics when dealing with social marketing. As for the Kenyan Rugby 7’s team, when dealing with a government body and national interest sabotage may not have been the best way to protest. Still, ambush marketing offers one of the options to avoid pitfalls of sponsorships so far as it is done in a legitimate manner that may not be of significant concern to the ambushed entity. Boniface Ngahu is a seasoned marketing research expert and runs the Talking Point column in Marketing Africa magazine. He is the Marketing Director of SBO Research. You can commune with him on this or related matters via email at: BNgahu@ sboresearch.co.ke, or follow him on Twitter @bngahu