LPHR Magazine (March 2013) - Page 37

MOTIVATION LPHR 3/13 CONDITIONING REWARD ADD REMOVE PUNISH OPERANT +R -R +P -P B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning [1957] B.F. Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning assumes that the ways people chose to behave in the future are a function of the consequences that have resulted from their past behavior. Skinner identifies four types of consequences: • Positive reinforcement (praise): Demonstrating desired behavior results in a desirable outcome or consequence. This may encourage individuals to choose to engage in desired behaviors again. • Negative reinforcement: When an individual believes that specific behaviors will result in a specific undesirable outcome or consequence, he or she may choose to demonstrate more desirable behaviors, instead. In this way, the individual will behave in a way that prevents that undesirable consequence from happening. • Punishment: Demonstrating undesirable behavior results in an undesirable outcome or consequence. This may encourage the individual to choose not to engage in that undesirable behavior again. • Extinction: An individual’s behavior - whether desired or undesired - elicits no outcomes or consequences at all. The individual may choose not to demonstrate that behavior again. MARCH 2013 | LPRH.CO