were marginalised or attacked as unscientific. A cardiologist, Robert Atkins, who, along with several other groups of researchers, had successfully treated his cardiac and obese patients with a low sugar/low carbohydrate diet, was venomously attacked; in the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Need in April 1973, Senator Charles Percy of Illinois went on record, on behalf of Fred Stare, a nutritionist at Harvard, saying: “The Atkins diet is nonsense...the author who makes the assertion is guilty of malpractice”. Thus the theory that refined sugars may be a major cause of metabolic illness (which has a long and illustrious history), was suppressed, and it is only now, in the second decade of the 21st century that this view has resurfaced. The period since the Senate hearing saw the inclusion of sugars in processed foods at the expense of fats, and the incidence of obesity/diabetes and dementias exploded. Gestational Diabetes Is it possible to refer to a condition of foetal dementia? Gestational diabetes, a growing problem, is a condition in pregnancy where the mother develops a form of type 2 diabetes in the third trimester. The foetal circulation is then 38 subject to a combination of hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinism. At birth the infants are often large (macrosomic) and they are at increased risk of obesity/diabetes and metabolic syndrome.