GRAPE SEED EXTRACT Grape seed extract is a derivative of whole grape seeds that have high levels of procyanidin dimers, which are known to be a potent inhibitor of aro- matase. Aromatase is an enzyme that is responsi- ble for the creation of estrogen from androgens in the body. Potentially at times, unused testosterone in the body can be converted to estrogen and reduce the amount of free testosterone in your sys- tem available for use. Therefore, reducing estrogen benefits your muscle-building and fat-shedding ability. A 2006 study determined that grape seed ex- tract was found to inhibit aromatase in a dose-de- pendent manner. Essentially, the more consumed, the more aromatase that was inhibited. However, much of the research was conducted in women, so we need a bit more research in men, but the results appear to be promising. Research indicates that 120 milligrams is all that’s needed each day. While it does work in a dose-dependent manner, it’s recommended that you consume no more 300 milligrams each day. It is considered safe, although moderate side effects such as headache, itchy scalp, dizziness, and nau- sea have been reported, especially with the higher doses. INDOLE-3 CARBINOL TestostroGrow 2 HP by Ultimate Nutrition combines testosterone-promoting agents such as Tribulus terrestris with proven estrogen fi ghters including indole-3 carbinol, alpha lipoic acid, and nettle root extract. 72 APRIL 201 7 | ironmanmagazine.com Indole-3 carbinol (I3C) is a compound found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, and mustard greens, which are all members of the Brassica family of vegetables. It has been recently researched regarding its ability to act as an aromatase inhibitor, similar to grape seed extract, by reducing the conversion of androgens to estrogen. Research as recent as 2015 has deter- mined that I3C can inhibit estrogen (in its estradiol form), which can potentially lead to an increase in free testosterone. Again, much of the research has been conducted in women with regards to cancer; however, this does not mean it will not work in men. Some reviews have concluded that the results with regards to being a supplement in men are in- conclusive, and more rigorous research is needed before a solid conclusion can be made. Doses of 200 to 400 milligrams per day seems to be effective. Because this has not been seen to work in a dose-de- pendent manner, it appears that 200 milligrams is just as effective as 400 milligrams. I3C is safe; however, very high doses have been shown to cause skin rashes, balance problems, tremor, and nausea.