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| Detecting Social Change | make the results repeatable and comparable for future research (Waldron 2009, 121). It is a sincere problem that there are no standards at the moment for investigating osteoporosis in past populations. This research shows that there is certainly potential for future research to study osteoporosis in past and systematic method for diagnosis should be developed. Conclusion The aim of this paper was to reveal whether there is a change in prevalence of osteoporosis from the Medieval to the post-Medieval period in London. Earlier research pointed to a decrease, while the change in nutrition, lifestyle and living conditions would suggest an increase in osteoporosis. With the presented results in this paper, it becomes clear that during the industrialisation period in London there is an increase in prevalence of individuals affected by osteoporosis. This increase is shown by both the crude prevalence rate and the statistical analysis using the Chi-squared method. Although there is a trend visible in this data, it is unclear whether this the increase in advanced research methods. Future research should incorporate advanced methods in osteological analysis to examine more closely the disease, and the development of osteoporosis. It is a limitation that there are currently no standards for investigating osteoporosis in past populations. This is especially problematic when researchers would like to make their results repeatable and use them to measure trends. It is recommended for future research to produce a standard for the examination of osteoporosis in archaeological human remains. Even though research could be improved, the an increase in osteoporosis during the Industrial Revolution in London based on a larger dataset than mentioned in previous studies. It therefore provides new crude prevalence rates for osteoporosis and statistical results for sex and age categories in the Medieval and post-Medieval period in London. When the recommendations for further research will be incorporated in the future it will provide new insights on osteoporosis and therefore on lifestyle and living conditions in the past. Acknowledgements The author would like to thank Dr. S.A. Inskip of the Faculty of Archaeology, University Leiden for her guidance, comments, and encouragement during the research and writing of the un dergraduate dissertation and this paper. The author would also like to thank J. Bekvalac, curator of Human Osteology at the Museum of London, for her help with compiling some missing data. The author would also like to show her gratitude the anonymous reviewer and the editorial board of INTER-SECTION for their helpful suggestions to improve this article. Bibliography Agarwal, S.C., 2008. Light and Broken Bones: Examining and Interpreting Bone Loss and Osteoporosis in Past Populations, in M.A. Katzenberg and S.R. Saunders (eds), Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton 2 nd edition. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 387-410. Aufderheide, A.C. and C. Rodriguez-Martin, 1998. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brickley, M. and R. Ives, 2008. The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. Brickley, M., 1997. Age Related Bone Loss and Osteoporosis in Archaeological Bone: A Study of Two London Collections, Redcross Way and Farringdon Street. London (unpublished PhD thesis University of London). Brickley, M., S. Buteux, J. Adams and R. Cherrington, 2006. St. Martin’s Uncovered: Investigations in the churchyard of St. Martin’s-in-the-Bull Ring, Birmingham, 2001. Oxford: Oxbow Books Bucholz, R.O. and J.P. Ward, 2012. London: A Social and Cultural History, 1550-1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Connell, B. and A. Miles, 2010. The City Bunhill burial ground, Golden Lane, London: Excavations at South Islington schools, 2006. London: Museum of London Archaeology (MOLA Archaeology Studies Series 21). Connell, B., A. Gray Jones, R. Redfern and D. Walker, 2012. A bioarchaeological study of medieval burials on Market, London E1, 1991-2007. London: Museum of London Archaeology (MOLA monograph 60). Cowie, R., J. Bekvalac and T. Kausmally, 2008. Late 17 th - to 19 th -century burial and earlier occupation at All Saints, Chelsea Old Church, Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. London: Museum of London Archaeology Service (MoLAS Archaeology Studies Series 18). 2017 | INTER-SECTION | VOL III | p.35