INTER-SECTION Volume III - Page 36

| Vivian S. van Heekeren | Discussion It is known that osteoporosis correlates with an increasing age. Therefore, the two affected age categories, 36-45 years and the β‰₯46 years and older, have been studied for both periods. Unfortunately, the data does not provide enough results for the Medieval period to calculate the expected frequency for the Chi-squared method. The relationship between these two categories for the post-Medieval (P-value = < 0.0001, Ο‡ 2 = 37.318, 1df). Effectively, this means that with the increase of age there is an increasing chance to develop osteoporosis as well. advances in science and technology resulted in the Industrial Revolution. The changes brought about by this had a dramatic effect on environment, lifestyle, and diet. As many of these changes would favour the development of osteoporosis, this study aimed to see whether there was a general increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis from the Medieval to the post-Medieval period. The results demonstrate that the crude prevalence rate of individuals affected by osteoporosis increases from 0.07% for the Medieval period to 1.08% for the post-Medieval period, a the rise of the overall percentage. It is known from clinical research that elderly females are systematically more affected by osteoporosis than males and younger individuals. with the statistical results for females and older adults that suffer from osteoporosis. In addition, prevalence of osteoporosis during the Industrial for the post-Medieval period with the increase of individuals with the disease in general. However, the problem with the older adult category is that this is a very large category wherein no distinction can be made between individuals in their forties or nineties. It might be possible that more individuals reached this age during the post-Medieval period or became older in general, which could have led to an increase in osteoporosis during this period. It is questionable whether the osteoporosis CPR composed by Roberts and Cox (2003) for the post- Medieval period in Great Britain is representative for other cemeteries. This current study presents more results from multiple sites in London and shows the opposite trend. Nevertheless, care should still be taken when comparing these results to cemetaries from elsewhere in Britain, since the industrialisation was far more extensive in London than it was in smaller cities or rural areas. While this paper tries to limit the impact of interobserver error by using data collected by the same institution, it is of course possible that some differences may still be a product of different data collectors or by when they were researched. The Medieval cemeteries discussed in this research were excavated between 1984 and 1998, while more than half of the post-Medieval ones were excavated in the 21 st century (Van Heekeren 2015, 60). The WHO is likely that the increase in osteoporosis cases in detect osteoporosis in archaeological human remains (Waldron 2009, 120). An example of improved detection of osteoporosis in archaeological human remains are the results from the St Brides Lower Cemetery. This site was used for composing the CPR found in Roberts and Cox (2003) and eight individuals were affected with osteoporosis in the original study from Molleson and Cox in 1993 (Roberts and Cox 2003, 355). The population of this cemetery has been re-examined by Brickley (1997) using modern techniques and this resulted in 31 individuals with skeletal changes conforming to osteoporosis (WORD database, 2015b). The advances of science and the use of medical technology, which is recently also more frequently used in osteoarchaeology, allow for better detection of osteoporosis and will most likely result in an increased detection of affected individuals in the future. Despite the availability of improved detection techniques, osteoarchaeologists still struggle determine when an individual was affected by this disease or not. This is also visible within the MOLA database where osteoporosis sometimes was recorded as a pathology, although based on different characteristics. The diagnosis could be based on the bones feeling lightweight and the age and sex of the individual, while on other occasions an individual should at least have one osteoporotic fracture (WORD database, 2015). Waldron (2009) argues that the true prevalence of osteoporosis will be underestimated in past populations when researchers only count the individuals with an osteoporotic fracture. However, counting osteoporotic fractures is the only way to p. 34 | VOL III | INTER-SECTION | 2017 | Vivian S. van Heekeren | Discussion It is known that osteoporosis correlates with an increasing age. Therefore, the two affected age categories, 36-45 years and the β‰₯46 years and older, have been studied for both periods. Unfortunately, the data does not provide enough results for the Medieval period to calculate the expected frequency for the Chi-squared method. The relationship between these two categories for the post-Medieval (P-value = < 0.0001, Ο‡ 2 = 37.318, 1df). Effectively, this means that with the increase of age there is an increasing chance to develop osteoporosis as well. advances in science and technology resulted in the Industrial Revolution. The changes brought about by this had a dramatic effect on environment, lifestyle, and diet. 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