INTER-SECTION Volume III - Page 30

| Fenno F.J.M. Noij | DETECTING SOCIAL CHANGE AN EXAMINATION OF THE ROLE OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ON OSTEOPOROSIS IN LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM Vivian S. van Heekeren Leiden University Abstract The period of the Industrial Revolution brought major changes in nutrition, lifestyle, and living conditions in London. These changes are conducive to the development of osteoporosis in the population. Osteopo- rosis is a metabolic bone disease, which is characterised by increased bone porosity, and may result in most prevalent diseases in the modern world, however archaeological sources remain mainly silent on the subject. Data from London provided by the Museum of Archaeology London (MOLA) is compared to observe whether there is a change in prevalence of osteoporosis between the Medieval and post-Medieval period. This research shows that if advanced techniques, such as radiography, are incorporated within the osteo- logical analysis more osteoporosis cases are found within the archaeological record. Structural incorpora- tion of modern techniques will provide new insights in past populations. Keywords Paleopathology, Metabolic bone disease, Medieval period, Post-Medieval period, Osteoarchaeology Email: v.s.van.heekeren@umail.leidenuniv.nl Academia: https://york.academia.edu/VivianvanHeekeren LinkedIn: https://nl.linkedin.com/in/vivian-van-heekeren-b355788a I ntroduction According to the World Health Organisation, osteoporosis is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the modern Western World (Kanis 2007, 6). For instance, in the United Kingdom (UK) 53.2% of women and 20.7% of men aged 50 years and over will have an osteoporotic fracture in their remaining lifetime (van Staa et al. 2001, 519-520). Since it is such a prevalent disease today, it is remarkable that documentary sources on archaeological human remains remain generally silent about osteoporosis in the past (Mays 2010, 206). Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterised by increased porosity of bone. In elderly females, it is p. 28 | VOL III | INTER-SECTION | 2017 especially associated with the menopause and the drop in oestrogen levels. This results in an increase in bone remodelling and bone resorption (Brickley and Ives 2008, 153). The balance between bone resorption and formation is thus disturbed and results are more fragile and prone to fracture (White et al. 2011, 447). There are different types of osteoporosis and it can be caused by multiple factors. Although the development of osteoporosis is known to be age genetics, ethnicity, physical activity, calcium intake, intake (Agarwal 2008, 391; Karlsson et al. 2006, 620-624). The known relationship between these