INTER-SECTION Volume III - Page 14

| Kim P. Deckers | solely related to running, such as the decoupling of the thorax (Bramble and Lieberman 2004, 349), which may help identify these behaviours in the fossil record. Another avenue of study should be the effect of running behaviour on the internal structure of bone. Trabecular bone responds more sensitively to changes in mechanical loading than cortical bone (Ortner 2003, 22) and running behaviours may be morphology. Combining analyses of outer bone and inner bone morphology in relation to running may give more insight or evidence in support of the endurance running hypothesis in the future. Acknowledgements I would like to thank Dr. Andrea Waters-Rist and the referees who reviewed this article for their input and helpful suggestions for improving this paper. Bibliography Antón, S.C., R. Potts and L.C. Aiello, 2014. Evolution of early Homo: An integrated biological perspective. Science 345, 1–13. Berger, L.R., J. Hawks, D.J. de Ruiter, S.E. Churchill, P. Schmid, L.K. Delezene, T.L. Kivell, H.M. Garvin, S.A. Williams, J.M. DeSilva, M.M. Skinner, C.M. Musiba, N. Cameron, T.W. Holliday, W. Harcourt-Smith, R.R. Ackermann, M. Bastir, B. Bogin, D. Bolter, J. Brophy, Z.D. Cofran, K.A. Congdon, A.S. Deane, M. Dembo, M. Drapeau, M.C. Elliott, E.M. Feuerriegel, D. Garcia- Martinez, D.J. Green, A. Gurtov, J.D. Irish, A. Kruger, M.F. Laird, D. Marchi, M.R. Meyer, S. Nalla, E.W. Negash, C.M. Orr, D. Radovcic, L. Schroeder, J.E. Scott, Z. Throckmorton, M.W. Tocheri, C. VanSickle, C.S. Walker, P. Wei and B. Zipfel, 2015. Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa. eLife 4, 1–35. Bojsen-Møller, F. 1979. Calcaneocuboid joint and stability of the longitudinal arch of the foot at high and low gear push off. Journal of Anatomy 129(Pt 1), 165 - 176. Bramble, D.M. and D.R. Carrier, 1983. Running and breathing in mammals. Science 219, 251–6. Bramble, D.M. and D.E. Lieberman, 2004. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 432, 345– 352. Carrier, D.R., 1984. The Energetic Paradox of Human Running and Hominid Evolution. Current Anthropology 25, 483. Cavanagh, P.R. and R. Kram, 1989. Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21, 467–479. Cavanagh, P.R., and K.R. Williams, 1982. The Effect of Stride Length Variation on Oxygen Uptake During Distance Running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 14, 30–35. Dembo, M., D. Radovčić, H.M. Garvin, M.F. Laird, L. Schroeder, J.E. Scott, J. Brophy, R.R. Ackermann, C.M. Musiba, D.J. de Ruiter and A.Ø. Mooers, 2016. The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: An assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods. Journal of Human Evolution 97, 17-26. Dennell, R., and W. Roebroeks, 2005. An Asian perspective on early human dispersal from Africa. Nature 438, 1099-1104 Fletcher, J.R., and B.R. MacIntosh, 2015. Achilles tendon strain energy in distance running: consider the muscle energy cost. Journal of Applied Physiology 118, 193–199. Garland, T., 1983. The relation between maximal running speed and body mass in terrestrial mammals. Journal of Zoology 199, 157–170. Haile-Selassie, Y., B.M. Latimer, M. Alene, A.L. Deino, L. Gibert, S.M. Melillo, B.Z. Saylor, G.R. Scott and C.O. Lovejoy, 2010. An early Australopithecus afarensis postcranium from Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107, 12121–12126. Harcourt-Smith, W.E.H., Z. Throckmorton, K.A. Congdon, B. Zipfel, A.S. Deane, M.S.M. Drapeau, S.E. Churchill, L.R. Berger and J.M. DeSilva, 2015. The foot of Homo naledi. Nature Communications 6, 1–8. Jungers, W.L., S.G. Larson, W. Harcourt-Smith, M.J. Morwood, T. Sutikna, R. Due Awe and T. Djubiantono, 2009. Descriptions of the lower limb skeleton of Homo Journal of Human Evolution 57, 538–554. Kaplan, H., K. Hill, J. Lancaster and M. Hurtado, 2000. A theory of human life history evolution: Diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 9, 156–185. Kerr, R.F., M.B. Bennett, S.R. Bibby, R.C. Kester and R.M. Alexander, 1987. The Spring in the Arch of the Human Foot. Nature 325, 147–149. Kidd, R.S., P. O’Higgins and C.E. Oxnard, 1996. The OH8 foot: a reappraisal of the functional morphology of the hindfoot utilizing a multivariate analysis. Journal of Human Evolution 31, 269–291. Levine, D., J. Richards and W.M. Whittle, 2012. Whittle’s gait analysis . London: Elsevier Health Sciences. Lieberman, D.E., D.M. Bramble, D.A. Raichlen and J.J. Shea, 2006. Brains, Brawn, and the Evolution of Human p. 12 | VOL III | INTER-SECTION | 2017 | Kim P. Deckers | solely related to running, such as the decoupling of the thorax (Bramble and Lieberman 2004, 349), which may help identify these behaviours in the fossil record. Another avenue of study should be the effect of running behaviour on the internal structure of bone. Trabecular bone responds more sensitively to changes in mechanical loading than cortical bone (Ortner 2003, 22) and running behaviours may be morphology. Combining analyses of outer bone and inner bone morphology in relation to running may give more insight or evidence in support of the endurance running hypothesis in the future. Acknowledgements I would like to thank Dr. Andrea Waters-Rist and the referees who reviewed this article for their input and helpful suggestions for improving this paper. Bibliography Antón, S.C., R. Potts and L.C. Aiello, 2014. Evolution of early Homo: An integrated biological perspective. Science 345, 1–13. Cavanagh, P.R., and K.R. Williams, 1982. The Effect of Stride Length Variation on Oxygen Uptake During Distance Running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 14, 30–35. Dembo, M., D. Radovčić, H.M. Garvin, M.F. Laird, L. Schroeder, J.E. Scott, J. Brophy, R.R. Ackermann, C.M. Musiba, D.J. de Ruiter and A.Ø. Mooers, 2016. The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: An assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods. Journal of Human Evolution 97, 17-26. Dennell, R., and W. Roebroeks, 2005. An Asian perspective on early human dispersal from Africa. Nature 438, 1099-1104 Fletcher, J.R., and B.R. MacIntosh, 2015. Achilles tendon strain energy in distance running: consider the muscle energy cost. Journal of Applied Physiology 118, 193–199. Garland, T., 1983. 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